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Fractal and spectroscopic analysis of soot from internal combustion engines
Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu Swapna, SARITHA DEVI H V, RAJ VIMAL, Sankararaman S, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Today diesel engines are used worldwide for various applications and very importantly in transportation. Hydrocarbons are the most widespread precursors among carbon sources employed in the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The aging of internal combustion engine is an important parameter in deciding the carbon emission and particulate matter due to incomplete combustion of fuel. In the present work, an attempt has been made for the effective utilization of the aged engines for potential applicationapplications in fuel cells and nanoelectronics. To analyze the impact of aging, the particulate matter rich in carbon content areis collected from diesel engines of different ages. The soot with CNTs is purified by the liquid phase oxidation method and analyzed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric analysis. The SEM image contains self-similar patterns probing fractal analysis. The fractal dimensions of the samples are determined by the box counting method. We could find a greater amount of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the particulate matter emitted by aged diesel engines and thereby giving information about the combustion efficiency of the engine. The SWCNT rich sample finds a wide range of applications in nanoelectronics and thereby pointing a potential use of these aged engines.
Keywords: Fractals, internal combustion engine, efficiency, soot, carbon nanoparticle
Published in RUNG: 30.06.2022; Views: 1414; Downloads: 0
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Ultraviolet Protection Action of Carbon Nanoparticles in Leaves
Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu Swapna, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have been explored widely in many fields of science and technology owing to its unique physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological properties. The interaction of the visible region of the electromagnetic radiation with plants and their role in photosynthesis is well studied. The antenna pigments in the protein matrix of thylakoid play a significant role in energy transport mechanism involved in photosynthesis. The energy absorbed by the proteins in the UV region also involves in the energy transport. The present work is aimed to understand the absorption of radiation by leaves in the ultraviolet (UV) region and the impact of CNPs produced by internal combustion diesel engines (ICE) in altering the absorbance level. The effect of CNPs is found to lower the UVabsorbance by leaves and thus acting as UV shield, protecting the leaves from cell damages. The characterization of the CNP and leaves is done by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and UV-visible spectrophotometer.
Keywords: Ultraviolet, Carbon nanoparticles, Photosynthesis, Internal combustion engine
Published in RUNG: 30.06.2022; Views: 1327; Downloads: 0
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Carbon Nanonecklaces with Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Dots
Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu Swapna, Sankararaman S, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Carbon nanoparticles (CNP) have gained significant attention representing unique carbon-based nanomaterials that find applications in various fields of science and technology. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon dots (CDs) have now been widely employed as an electrode in super capacitors, as fluorescent nanomaterials for imaging and for fuel cell applications. In the present work, we describe a simple, low cost and chemical free method of synthesizing stable CNPs aligned in the form of a chain popularly known as carbon necklace with CNTs and CDs. Carbon nanoparticles are synthesized by controlled combustion of camphor in a single step flame process. The CNPs synthesized are characterized using X-ray Powder diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X ray diffraction (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible absorption and Photoluminescent (PL) Spectroscopy. The morphology and size of the CNPs are examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) which shows ‘necklace’ structure. The CNPs are collected at two different heights and the particles formed are found in the range 30 to 60 nm. The UV- Visible and PL Spectra of the CNPs obtained show the presence CDs. The Raman Spectroscopic and XRD analysis indicate the presence of CNTs in the sample.
Keywords: Carbon nanoparticles, Combustion, Carbon nanotubes, Carbon dots, Carbon necklaces
Published in RUNG: 30.06.2022; Views: 1405; Downloads: 0
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Investigation of graphene oxide in diesel soot
Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu Swapna, Sankararaman S, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Graphene has emerged as a potential material in various scientific disciplines, ranging from material science, engineering, and more recently biomedicine. The paper describes the investigation of the presence of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) in the carbon soot of internal combustion diesel engines. The UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X- ray diffraction (XRD), Photoluminescent (PL) and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the sample provided a conclusive evidence of the formation of graphene and GO. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDX) of the sample show carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) of size less than 50nm. The High -Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis confirmed the formation of graphene sheets with carbon nanospheres attached to it. The study reveals the possible exploitation of the diesel soot for potential applications in science and technology
Keywords: Graphene, Graphene oxide, Carbon nanoparticles, Combustion, Carbon nanotube
Published in RUNG: 30.06.2022; Views: 1400; Downloads: 0
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Crystal phase controlled synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by solution combustion method
Olena Pliekhova, Urška Lavrenčič Štangar, 2018, published scientific conference contribution

Keywords: Solution combustion, titanium dioxide, carbohydrazide, chloride ion, fluoride ion
Published in RUNG: 10.09.2018; Views: 3615; Downloads: 0
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