Biogenic amines in Hardanger ciders: the effect of native cider yeasts on biogenic amine productionUrban Česnik
, Mitja Martelanc
, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec
, Ingunn Ovsthus
, Lorena Butinar
, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract
Abstract: The presence of bioactive compounds in food and beverages of plant origin is mainly connected with higher nutritional value and better sensory properties. However, some of them can pose a threat to food product quality and human health. For example, excess biogenic amines (BAs) intake can cause different allergenic responses in individuals who have such intolerances.
BAs have been intensively studied in recent years, especially in fermented foods like wine, meat, fish, and cheese. Among fermented beverages is apple cider still rather unexplored from this perspective. Especially since no such data exist for the Norwegian cider. Norwegian cider is becoming more and more popular in Norway in recent years among producers and consumers. Hardanger cider from Western Norway is very different from French, English, or Spanish ciders in terms of sensory characteristics, apple cultivars, and in the fermentation process. In Hardanger, the traditional cider is still produced by spontaneous fermentation of apple juice with naturally occurring yeasts that originate from the fruit or processing equipment surfaces.
Lactic acid bacteria are known to be associated with BA formation. However, several studies reported about the BA-producing yeasts in winemaking. Due to the important role of natural yeasts in the production of Hardanger cider, we focused on the ability of BA formation by native yeasts. Thus, in our study, we followed the amounts of BAs in the Hardanger ciders during the fermentation process and characterize isolated yeasts if they have the ability to produce BAs under cidermaking conditions by performing a micro-fermentation experiment.
From must/cider samples, taken during the fermentation process at 13 producers in the Hardanger region, we isolated 530 yeast isolates. Based on the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA we identified 25 different yeast species. As expected, yeast diversity was higher at the beginning compared to the middle fermentation stage, when mostly different non-Saccharomyces yeast species prevailed, while at the end of fermentation mainly Saccharomyces species with high ethanol tolerance were present.
BAs were analyzed with the HPLC-UV method. In all apple juice/cider samples 4 different BAs (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine) were detected and quantified with external calibration. On average in all cider samples from the producers total BA (summation of all BAs) concentration reached 9,45 mg/L, however in one case even 25 mg/L. Tyramine was the most abundant BA in all fermentation stages. 40 isolated yeast strains were further tested for BA formation in a small-scale experiment by fermenting apple juice. Results show that non-Saccharomyces yeasts mainly form histamine (1,68 mg/L) and tyramine (1,30 mg/L), while Saccharomyces yeasts putrescine (0,48 mg/L) and tyramine (3,53 mg/L). As a general conclusion, the occurrence and distribution of BA concentrations in the small-scale fermentation were lower (2,96 mg/L and 4,01 mg/L) and less variable than in the real ciders (average in final ciders 9,45 mg/L) and with tyramine being the most abundant BA in all samples analyzed.
Keywords: Cider, yeast, biogenic amines, Hardanger, biodiversity
Published in RUNG: 23.06.2023; Views: 581; Downloads: 4
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