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1.
Update on the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy search at the highest energies by the Telescope Array Experiment
T. Fujii, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The study of large-scale anisotropy at the highest energies is essential for understanding the transition from cosmic rays of galactic origin to those of extra-galactic origin, along with the magnetic fields in the galaxy and those beyond. Motivated by a significant detection of the large-scale anisotropy above 8 EeV by the Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger), we had previously reported, using 11 years of Telescope Array (TA) surface array data, a result compatible both with that of Auger, and with an isotropic source distribution [R. U. Abbasi et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 898, L28 (2020)]. In this contribution, we will show the preliminary updated results using 12 years TA SD data to search for the large-scale anisotropy at the highest energies.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, large-scale, dipole
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1034; Downloads: 4
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2.
The UHECR dipole and quadrupole in the latest data from the original Auger and TA surface detectors
P. Tinyakov, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are still unknown, but assuming standard physics, they are expected to lie within a few hundred megaparsecs from us. Indeed, over cosmological distances cosmic rays lose energy to interactions with background photons, at a rate depending on their mass number and energy and properties of photonuclear interactions and photon backgrounds. The universe is not homogeneous at such scales, hence the distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays is expected to reflect the inhomogeneities in the distribution of galaxies; the shorter the energy loss lengths, the stronger the expected anisotropies. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields can blur and distort the picture, but the magnitudes of the largest-scale anisotropies, namely the dipole and quadrupole moments, are the most robust to their effects. Measuring them with no bias regardless of any higher-order multipoles is not possible except with full-sky coverage. In this work, we achieve this in three energy ranges (approximately 8-16 EeV, 16-32 EeV, and 32-∞ EeV) by combining surface-detector data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2020 and at the Telescope Array (TA) until 2019, before the completion of the upgrades of the arrays with new scintillator detectors. We find that the full-sky coverage achieved by combining Auger and TA data reduces the uncertainties on the north-south components of the dipole and quadrupole in half compared to Auger-only results.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, large scale, fully sky coverage, dipole, quadropole
Published in RUNG: 29.09.2023; Views: 947; Downloads: 4
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3.
Southern African Large Telescope Spectroscopy of BL Lacs for the CTA project
Eli Kasai, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: n the last two decades, very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy has reached maturity: over 200 sources have been detected, both Galactic and extragalactic, by ground-based experiments. At present, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) make up about 40% of the more than 200 sources detected at very high energies with ground-based telescopes, the majority of which are blazars, i.e. their jets are closely aligned with the line of sight to Earth and three quarters of which are classified as high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. One challenge to studies of the cosmological evolution of BL Lacs is the difficulty of obtaining redshifts from their nearly featureless, continuum-dominated spectra. It is expected that a significant fraction of the AGN to be detected with the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will have no spectroscopic redshifts, compromising the reliability of BL Lac population studies, particularly of their cosmic evolution. We started an effort in 2019 to measure the redshifts of a large fraction of the AGN that are likely to be detected with CTA, using the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). In this contribution, we present two results from an on-going SALT program focused on the determination of BL Lac object redshifts that will be relevant for the CTA observatory.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, Active Galactic Nuclei, high-frequency peaked BL Lacs, Southern African Large Telescope
Published in RUNG: 18.09.2023; Views: 1151; Downloads: 6
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4.
Prototype Open Event Reconstruction Pipeline for the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Maximilian Nöthe, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next-generation gamma-ray observatory currently under construction. It will improve over the current generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) by a factor of five to ten in sensitivity and it will be able to observe the whole sky from a combination of two sites: a northern site in La Palma, Spain, and a southern one in Paranal, Chile. CTA will also be the first open gamma-ray observatory. Accordingly, the data analysis pipeline is developed as open-source software. The event reconstruction pipeline accepts raw data of the telescopes and processes it to produce suitable input for the higher-level science tools. Its primary tasks include reconstructing the physical properties of each recorded shower and providing the corresponding instrument response functions. ctapipe is a framework providing algorithms and tools to facilitate raw data calibration, image extraction, image parameterization and event reconstruction. Its main focus is currently the analysis of simulated data but it has also been successfully applied for the analysis of data obtained with the first CTA prototype telescopes, such as the Large-Sized Telescope 1 (LST-1). pyirf is a library to calculate IACT instrument response functions, needed to obtain physics results like spectra and light curves, from the reconstructed event lists. Building on these two, protopipe is a prototype for the event reconstruction pipeline for CTA. Recent developments in these software packages will be presented.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, gamma-ray observatory, vent reconstruction pipeline, Large-Sized Telescope 1
Published in RUNG: 18.09.2023; Views: 820; Downloads: 5
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5.
Sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to TeV photon emission from the Large Magellanic Cloud
A. Acharyya, R. Adam, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: A deep survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud at ∼ 0.1−100 TeV photon energies with the Cherenkov Telescope Array is planned. We assess the detection prospects based on a model for the emission of the galaxy, comprising the four known TeV emitters, mock populations of sources, and interstellar emission on galactic scales. We also assess the detectability of 30 Doradus and SN 1987A, and the constraints that can be derived on the nature of dark matter. The survey will allow for fine spectral studies of N 157B, N 132D, LMC P3, and 30 Doradus C, and half a dozen other sources should be revealed, mainly pulsar-powered objects. The remnant from SN 1987A could be detected if it produces cosmic-ray nuclei with a flat power-law spectrum at high energies, or with a steeper index 2.3−2.4 pending a flux increase by a factor > 3−4 over ∼ 2015−2035. Large-scale interstellar emission remains mostly out of reach of the survey if its > 10 GeV spectrum has a soft photon index ∼ 2.7, but degree-scale 0.1 − 10 TeV pion-decay emission could be detected if the cosmic-ray spectrum hardens above >100 GeV. The 30 Doradus star-forming region is detectable if acceleration efficiency is on the order of 1 − 10% of the mechanical luminosity and diffusion is suppressed by two orders of magnitude within < 100 pc. Finally, the survey could probe the canonical velocity-averaged cross section for self-annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles for cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White profiles.
Keywords: very-high energy (VHE) gamma-rays, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, Large Magellanic Cloud, pulsar wind nebulas, galaxiesstar-forming regions, cosmic rays, dark matter
Published in RUNG: 02.06.2023; Views: 1528; Downloads: 1
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Studying TDEs in the era of LSST
Katja Bricman, Andreja Gomboc, 2019, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: The observing strategy with continuous scanning and large sky coverage of the upcoming ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will make it a perfect tool in search of rare transients, such as Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs). Bright optical flares resulting from tidal disruption of stars by their host supermassive black hole (SMBH) can provide us with important information about the mass of the SMBH involved in the disruption and thus enable the study of quiescent SMBHs, which represent a large majority of SMBHs found in centres of galaxies. These types of transients are extremely rare, with only about few tens of candidates discovered so far. It is expected that the LSST will provide a large sample of new TDE light curves. Here we present simulations of TDE observations using an end-to-end LSST simulation framework. Based on the analysis of simulated light curves we estimate the number of TDEs with good quality light curves the LSST is expected to discover in 10 years of observations. In addition, we investigate whether TDEs observed by the LSST could be used to probe the SMBH mass distribution in the universe. The participation at this conference is supported by the Action CA16104 Gravitational waves, black holes and fundamental physics (GWverse), supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).
Published in RUNG: 04.01.2021; Views: 2944; Downloads: 0

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