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Theme-vowel class indeterminacy and root allomorphy in Slovenian
Marko Simonović, Petra Mišmaš, 2023, original scientific article

Keywords: theme vowels, root allomorphy, prosody, Slovenian, distributed morphology, optimality theory
Published in RUNG: 17.02.2023; Views: 1233; Downloads: 3
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Abscisic acid-regulated water channels and their role in plant acclimation and tolerance to water stress
Christina Paparokidou, 2014, master's thesis

Abstract: The yield of worldwide crop production has already been negatively affected by high salinity and water deficiency prevailing in many of the cultivated lands (Yan et al., 2013; Serraj et al., 2011; Golldack et al., 2011). Consequently, reduced crop production is a major problem in terms of food sustainability world-wide (Spiertz, 2013). Plants as sessile organisms have to dynamically and constantly cope with various types of stress in their environment. Although stress perception by plants remains elusive (Gan et al., 2010; Shachar-Hill et al., 2013; Wu et al., 2012), the stress-responsive mechanisms that follow are starting to be better understood (Wasilewska et al., 2008; Kohli et al., 2013; Osakabe et al., 2013). Abscisic acid (ABA) is a central plant hormone produced in response to abiotic stress and has been shown to play important roles in plant acclimation and tolerance towards stress (Nakashima and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 2013; Osakabe et al., 2014). ABA accumulation triggers the expression of a plethora of genes within the plant cell (Liu et al., 2013). The ABA-regulated genes are various in nature, including enzymes involved in osmolyte and cell wall biosynthesis, detoxifying enzymes, enzymes for fatty acid metabolism, proteinase inhibitors, macromolecule protective proteins, lipid transfer proteins, ion transporters and water channels, transcription factors (TFs), protein kinases, protein phosphatases and proteinases (Roychoudhury et al., 2013; Rock, 2000). In this literature review the role of water channel-encoding genes, namely aquaporins (AQPs), in plant water stress will be discussed. The aim of this study is to understand how ABA-regulated AQPs are able to contribute to the plant’s tolerance and acclimation during water stress. The knowledge gained from this study is important for the engineering of salt and drought resistant crops within the modern agricultural context, thus contributing to world’s crop sustainable production (Jacobs et al., 2011; Park et al., 2005; Kujur et al., 2013).
Keywords: Abscisic acid (ABA), ABA-regulated genes, aquaporins (AQPs), ABA-regulated AQPs, ABA-dependent water stress, root hydraulic conductance (Lpr), leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf), stomatal conductance (gs), AQP bioengineering
Published in RUNG: 03.05.2022; Views: 1388; Downloads: 0
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Why kl~kolj, br~ber, v~ved, but never kl~br or kolj~ber? : restrictions on the phonological shape of root allomorphs in Slovenian
Petra Mišmaš, Marko Simonović, 2021, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: Slovenian, phonology, morphology, verbs, root allomorphy, theme vowels
Published in RUNG: 29.01.2021; Views: 2381; Downloads: 69
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Verb wasn't built in a cycle (it was built in two)
Marko Simonović, Petra Mišmaš, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: In this talk, we focus on verbs and argue that verbs lack prosodic specification in their lexical entry. We propose that the two different stress patterns in verbs are a consequence of two positions for theme vowels in the verbal domain. Assuming that Slovenian prosody places stress at the final syllable of the deepest cycle (Simonović under review), we argue that the verb forms that surface with a stressed theme vowel (e.g. godrnj-á-mo) have the theme vowel positioned just below the first cyclic head, whereas the remaining verbs have their theme vowel above this position which leads to stem-final stress (vijúg-a-mo).
Keywords: verbs, stress, root allomorphy, Slovenian, Distributed Morphology
Published in RUNG: 07.09.2020; Views: 2677; Downloads: 0
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Copper tolerance strategies involving the root cell wall pectins in Silene paradoxa L.
Ilaria Colzi, Miluscia Arnetoli, Alessia Gallo, Saer Doumett, Massimo Del Bubba, Sara Pignattelli, Roberto Gabbrielli, Cristina Gonnelli, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: New insights were provided on the function of root cell wall pectin concentration and methylation degree in copper tolerance studying contrasting ecotypes of Silene paradoxa. A metallicolous copper tolerant population and a non-metallicolous sensitive population were grown in hydroponics and exposed to different CuSO4 treatments to evaluate copper accumulation in relation to pectin concentration and methylation degree of the root cell wall. In short-term exposure experiments the tolerant population decreased root cell wall pectin concentration and increased their methylation degree, while the sensitive population did not respond. Moreover, a positive correlation between root pectin concentration and metal accumulation in root apoplast and symplast was found. In addition, a negative correlation between pectin methylation degree and apoplastic copper concentration were found to be negatively correlated. In longterm exposure experiments, the sensitive population increased the concentration of pectins with the same methylation degree and consequently the ability of its root cell wall to bind the metal. The opposite phenomenon was shown by the tolerant population. Moreover, pectin methylation degree was higher in the tolerant population in respect to the sensitive one, possibly to limit metal binding to the root cell wall. Therefore, in the copper tolerant population of S. paradoxa the generation of metal-excluding root cell walls was suggested to be one of the factors concurring to guarantee a low apoplastic copper accumulation and probably also to limit symplastic copper uptake by the root cells.
Keywords: Copper tolerance Cell wall Pectin Methylation Root
Published in RUNG: 20.04.2020; Views: 2878; Downloads: 0
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Linking root traits to copper exclusion mechanisms in Silene paradoxa L. (Caryophyllaceae)
Ilaria Colzi, Sara Pignattelli, Elisabetta Giorni, Alessio Papini, Cristina Gonnelli, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Copper is one of the most important pollutants in mine- contaminated soils. This study tests the response in a sensitive population vs a tolerant one of the model species Silene paradoxa in order to understand the general mechanisms of tolerance at the micromorphological and ultrastructural level. Two populations of Silene paradoxa were grown in hydroponics and exposed to different CuSO4 treatments. The roots were investigated with light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscope. Callose and lignin were spectrophotometrically determined. The tolerant population constitutively possessed a higher amount of mucilage and was able to reduce the length of the zone between the apex and the first lignified tracheids. Callose production decreased. It did not show remarkable copper-induced ultrastructural modifications, apart from the presence of precipitates in the tangential walls. The sensitive population showed huge nucleoli with a spongy periphery in the central cylinder together with the presence of electrondense granules in the mitochondria. Plastids were rarely observed and generally very electrondense and elongated. In the copper tolerant population of S. paradoxa some of the root traits concurring to generate metal-excluding roots were suggested to be mucilage and lignin production and the reduction of the subapical root zone.
Keywords: Root, Copper exclusion, Lignin, Callose, Tolerance to copper, Silene paradoxa
Published in RUNG: 20.04.2020; Views: 2822; Downloads: 0
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√ov is in the air: The extreme multifunctionality of the Slovenian affix -ov-
Marko Simonović, Petra Mišmaš, unpublished conference contribution

Keywords: Slovenian, Distributed Morphology, Morphology, allomorphy, adjectives, declension, root, affix
Published in RUNG: 28.06.2019; Views: 3351; Downloads: 0
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