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1.
Highlights from the Telescope Array Experiment
J. Kim, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution (invited lecture)

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) observatory in the Northern Hemisphere. Together with the TA Low Energy Extension (TALE), TA×4, and TALE infill detector, the TA measures the properties of UHECR-induced extensive air showers (EAS) in the energy region from 10^15 eV to over 10^20 eV. Each of these uses a hybrid system with an array of scintillators to sample the footprint of the EAS at the Earth’s surface along with telescopes that measure the fluorescence and Cherenkov light from the EAS. The statistics at the highest energies are being enhanced with the TA×4 detector, half completed but still under construction, which will quadruple the surface detector area with telescopes. The TALE infill surface detectors were recently deployed to further lower the hybrid energy threshold of TALE. We present the status of the experiment and recent results on the energy spectrum, mass composition, and anisotropy, including new features in the energy spectrum at about 10^19.2 eV and in the UHECR arrival direction anisotropy.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, surface detection, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition, anisotropy
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 836; Downloads: 6
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2.
Anisotropies in the arrival direction distribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays measured by the Telescope Array surface detector
Jihyun Kim, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are extremely energetic, charged particles with energies greater than 10^18 eV, originating from outer space. We investigate anisotropic patterns in the arrival direction distribution of UHECRs to identify their source locations. The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, the largest UHECR observatory in the northern hemisphere, has observed evidence of two intermediate-scale anisotropies in UHECR arrival direction distributions: the TA Hotspot and the Perseus-Pisces supercluster excess. In this presentation, we will describe an oversampling analysis that we performed to find the excess of events using the data measured by the TA surface detector array. We will report the latest results of the TA Hotspot and Perseus-Pisces supercluster excesses.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 801; Downloads: 4
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3.
Measurement of cosmic-ray energy spectrum with the TALE detector in hybrid mode
H. Oshima, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The TA Low-energy Extension (TALE) experiment extends the low-energy side of the TA experiment below 10^15 eV. A main objective of TALE is to study the transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. The TALE detector is a hybrid observatory composed of fluorescence telescopes and a surface detector array of scintillation counters. The surface detectors are arranged with inter-counter spacing of 400 and 600 meters, suitable for hybrid energy spectrum measurements in the low-energy region. We measured the energy spectrum using data collected during 429 hours of observation by the TALE hybrid detector. This energy spectrum measurement will play an important role in understanding the transition from cosmic rays of galactic origin to those of extragalactic origin.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 836; Downloads: 4
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4.
Cosmic ray energy spectrum and mass composition with the TALE fluorescence detector
T. Abu-Zayyad, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) cosmic rays detector located in the State of Utah in the United States is the largest ultra high energy cosmic rays detector in the northern hemisphere. The Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) fluorescence detector (FD) was added to TA in order to lower the detector's energy threshold, and has succeeded in measuring the cosmic rays energy spectrum down to PeV energies, by making use of the direct Cherenkov light produced by air showers. In this contribution we present the results of a measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum and mass composition using TALE FD data collected over a period of ∼8 years. This contribution provides an update to results on the cosmic-ray energy spectrum and mass composition presented at this conference in 2021. The update includes data collected during 16 additional months of observation and an updated detector simulation sets.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection
Published in RUNG: 09.10.2023; Views: 768; Downloads: 6
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5.
Cosmic ray mass composition measurement with the TALE hybrid detector
K. Fujita, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: We report on the cosmic ray mass composition measured by the Telescope Array Low-energy Extension (TALE) hybrid detector. The TALE detector consists of a Fluorescence Detector (FD) station with 10 FD telescopes located at the TA Middle Drum FD Station (itself made up of 14 FD telescopes), and a Surface Detector (SD) array of scintillation counters. The SD array consists of 40 counters with 400 m spacing and 40 counters with 600 m spacing. The FD station, with a total of 24 telescopes, overlooks the SD array and provides sky coverage with an elevation angle range of 3∘ to 59∘. In this contribution, we will present the latest result of the cosmic ray mass composition measurement in the energy range from 10^16.5 eV to 10^18.5 eV using almost 5 years of TALE hybrid data.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, infill array, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition
Published in RUNG: 09.10.2023; Views: 825; Downloads: 6
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6.
The status of the TALE surface detector array and TALE infill project
A. Iwasakia, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Routine hybrid observations of the surface detectors (SD) in conjunction with the fluorescence detectors (FD) of the Telescope Array Low-energy Extension (TALE) began in November 2018. In this presentation, we will describe the simulation studies of detector aperture and resolution of the TALE SD, and report on the latest observation results other than the energy spectrum. We are also in the process of expanding the experiment by 50 SDs, with even smaller nearest-neighbor spacing, in order lower the energy threshold to match that of the Cherenkov-dominated events seen by the FD. Details of the upgrade and expected performance of this new extension will be discussed.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, surface detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 875; Downloads: 81
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7.
Cosmic Ray Composition between 2 PeV and 2 EeV measured by the TALE Fluorescence Detector
T. AbuZayyad, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) cosmic rays detector located in the State of Utah in the United States is the largest ultra high energy cosmic rays detector in the northern hemisphere. The Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) fluorescence detector (FD) was added to TA in order to lower the detector's energy threshold, and has succeeded in measuring the cosmic rays energy spectrum down to PeV energies, by making use of the direct Cherenkov light produced by air showers. In this contribution we present the results of a measurement of the cosmic-ray composition using TALE FD data collected over a period of ∼7 years. TALE FD data is used to measure the Xmax distributions of showers seen in the energy range of 10^15.3 - 10^18.3 eV. The data distributions are fit to Monte Carlo distributions of {H, He, N, Fe} cosmic-ray primaries for energies up to 10^18 eV. Mean Xmax values are measured for the full energy range. TALE observes a light composition at the "Knee", that gets gradually heavier as energy increases toward the "Second-Knee". An increase in the Xmax elongation rate is observed at energies just above 10^17.3 eV indicating a change in the cosmic rays composition from a heavier to a lighter mix of primaries.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 945; Downloads: 5
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8.
Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum measured by the TALE Fluorescence Detector
T. AbuZayyad, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) cosmic rays detector located in the State of Utah in the United States is the largest ultra high energy cosmic rays detector in the northern hemisphere. The Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) fluorescence detector (FD) was added to TA in order to lower the detector's energy threshold, and has succeeded in measuring the cosmic rays energy spectrum down to PeV energies, by making use of the direct Cherenkov light produced by air showers. In this contribution we present the results of a measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum using TALE FD data collected over a period of ∼7 years. The data set used for this measurement is the same one used for the mass composition measurement that is presented, as a separate contribution, at this conference. The energy spectrum shows features consistent with the "knee" and the "second knee"; a similar result to our previous energy spectrum publication. This time using a different hadronic model, and different event selection criteria as explained in the text of this proceeding.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 817; Downloads: 6
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9.
Cosmic Ray Composition in the Second Knee Region as Measured by the TALE Hybrid Detector
R. Abbasi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array Low-energy Extension (TALE) experiment is a hybrid air shower detector for the observation of air showers induced by cosmic rays with energy above 10^16 eV. The TALE detector consists of a Fluorescence Detector (FD) station with 10 FD telescopes located at the TA Middle Drum FD Station (itself made up of 14 FD telescopes), and a Surface Detector (SD) array made up of 80 scintillation counters, including 40 with 400 m spacing and 40 with 600 m spacing. A triggering system for the TALE-SD using an external trigger from the TALE-FD, a so-called hybrid trigger, allows for a lower energy threshold. The TALE hybrid trigger system has been working since 2018. Here we present an estimate of the performance of hybrid detection using a Monte Carlo simulation, and a first measurement of the cosmic ray composition and spectrum using the TALE-Hybrid detector.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 887; Downloads: 5
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10.
Highlights from the Telescope Array experiment
Grigory I. Rubtsov, R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution (invited lecture)

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest cosmic ray observatory in the Northern Hemisphere. It is designed to measure the properties of cosmic rays over a wide range of energies. TA with it's low energy extension (TALE) observe cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers between 2 PeV and 100 EeV in hybrid mode using multiple instruments, including an array of scintillator detectors at the Earth's surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light. The statistics at the highest energies is being enhanced with the ongoing construction of the TAx4 experiment which will quadruple the surface area of the detector. We review the present status of the experiments and most recent physics results on the cosmic ray anisotropy, chemical composition and energy spectrum. Notable highlights include a new feature in the energy spectrum at about 10^19.2 eV, and a new clustering of events in the direction of Perseus-Pisces supercluster above this energy. We also report on updated diffuse photon flux limits and new spectrum and composition results in the lower energy range from the TALE extension.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, Cherenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition, anisotropy
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 866; Downloads: 5
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