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1.
aInfluence of milling time and thermal treatment on catalytic activity of ▫$MoS_2$▫/graphene oxide composites
J. Rmuš Mravik, Blaž Belec, Željko Mravik, Zoran M. Jovanović, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: composites, catalysis
Published in RUNG: 13.11.2023; Views: 929; Downloads: 1
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Composites of transition metal dichalcogenides and topological insulators as a new class of catalytic materials
Jelena Rmuš, Blaž Belec, Igor Milanović, Mattia Fanetti, Sandra Gardonio, Matjaž Valant, Sandra V. Kurko, 2022, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: composites, topological insulators
Published in RUNG: 13.02.2023; Views: 1203; Downloads: 0
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Analysis of SiO2 and BaSO4 leachates from dental composites by thermal lens spectrometry
Dorota Korte, Vesna Jereb, Mladen Franko, 2022, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: dental composites, thermal lens spectrometry, SiO2 and BaSO4 leachates
Published in RUNG: 30.06.2022; Views: 1410; Downloads: 0
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6.
Polymer-based nano-composites for thermal insulation
Alessandro Fraleoni-Morgera, Manisha Chhikara, 2019, review article

Keywords: nano-composites, polymers, thermal insulation
Published in RUNG: 13.07.2021; Views: 2227; Downloads: 0

7.
Seminar on Bimagnetic Composites
Blaž Belec, other monographs and other completed works

Keywords: BI-MAGNETIC composites nanoparticles
Published in RUNG: 09.01.2019; Views: 4353; Downloads: 116
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PHOTO-EXCITATION ENERGY INFLUENCE ON THE PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY OF ORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS
Nadiia Pastukhova, 2018, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: In this work, we experimentally studied the influence of photoexcitation energy influence on the charge transport in organic semiconductors. Organic semiconductors were small molecules like corannulene, perylene and pentacene derivatives, polymers such as polythiophene and benzothiophene derivatives, and graphene, along with combinations of these materials in heterojunctions or composites. The first part of this study is focused on the photoexcitation energy influence on the transient photoconductivity of non-crystalline curved π-conjugated corannulene layers. The enhanced photoconductivity, in the energy range where optical absorption is absent, is deduced from theoretical predictions of corannulene gas-phase excited state spectra. Theoretical analysis reveals a consistent contribution involving transitions to Super Atomic Molecular Orbitals (SAMOs), a unique set of diffuse orbitals typical of curved π-conjugated molecules. More, the photoconductivity of the curved corannulene was compared to the π-conjugated planar N,N′-1H,1H- perfluorobutyldicyanoperylene-carboxydi-imide (PDIF-CN2), where the photoexcitation energy dependence of photocurrent closely follows the optical absorption spectrum. We next characterized charge transport in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layers deposited from solution. Our results indicate that time-of-flight (TOF) mobility depends on the photoexcitation energy. It is 0.4× 10 −3 cm 2 /Vs at 2.3 eV (530 nm) and doubles at 4.8 eV (260 nm). TOF mobility was compared to field-effect (FET) mobility of P3HT field-effect transistors (OFETs). The FET mobility was similar to the 2.3 eV excitation TOF mobility. In order to improve charge mobility, graphene nanoparticles were blended within a P3HT solution before the deposition. We found that the mobility significantly improves upon the addition of graphene nanoparticles of a weight ratio as low as 0.2 %. FET mobility increases with graphene concentration up to a value of 2.3× 10 −2 cm 2 /Vs at 3.2 %. The results demonstrate that phase segregation starts to influence charge transport at graphene concentration of 0.8 % and above. Hence, the graphene cannot form a bridged conduction channel between electrodes, which would cancel the semiconducting effect of the polymer composite. An alternative approach to enhance mobility is to optimize the molecular ordering of organic semiconductors. For that purpose, we studied an innovative nanomesh device. Free-standing nanomesh devices were used to form nanojunctions of N,N′- iiDioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8) nanowires and crystalline bis(triisopropylsilylethinyl)pentacene (TIPS-PEN). We characterized the photocurrent response time of this novel nanomesh scaffold device. The photoresponse time depends on the photon energy. It is between 4.5 − 5.6 ns at 500 nm excitation wavelength and between 6.7 − 7.7 ns at 700 nm excitation wavelength. In addition, we found that thermal annealing reduces charge carrier trapping in crystalline nanowires. This confirms that the structural defects are crucial to obtaining high photon-to-charge conversion efficiency and subsequent transport from pn junction in heterostructured materials. Structural defects also influence the power conversion efficiency of organic heterostructured photovoltaics (OPVs). Anticipating that polymers with different backbone lengths produce different level of structural defects, we examined charge transport dependence on the molecular weight of poly[4,8-bis(5-(2- ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2- ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl] (PTB7-Th) from 50 kDa to 300 kDa. We found p-type hopping transport in PTB7-Th, characterized by 0.1 – 3× 10 −2 cm 2 /Vs mobility, which increases with temperature and electric field. The polymer molecular weight exhibits a non-trivial influence on charge transport. FET mobility in the saturation regime increases with molecular weight. A similar trend is observed in TOF mobility and FET mobility in the linear regime, except for the 100kDa polymer, which manifests in the highest mobility due to reduced charge trapping. The lowest trapping at the dielectric interface of OFET is observed at 200 kDa. In addition, the 200 kDa polymer exhibits the lowest activation energy of the charge transport. Although the 100 kDa polymer indicates the highest mobility, OPVs using the 200 kDa polymer exhibit the best performance in terms of power conversion efficiency.
Keywords: organic semiconductors, optical absorption spectroscopy, time-of-flight photoconductivity, transient photocurrent spectroscopy, organic thin film transistors, atomic force microscopy, superatomic molecular orbitals, pn heterojunction, organic nanowires, graphene, composites, charge mobility, charge trapping, temperature dependence, photodetector, photovoltaic, solar cell, organic electronics
Published in RUNG: 08.10.2018; Views: 5726; Downloads: 166
.pdf Full text (4,56 MB)

9.
Synthesis and characterization of metal/semiconductor nanocomposites for photocatalysis
Tina Mavrič, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: The doctoral dissertation focused on improving photocatalytic activity of nanopowdered ZnO by constructing I) Metal-Semiconductor and II) Semiconductor-Semiconductor heterostructures. Both heterostructure types have been reported to have a beneficial effect on photocatalytic efficiency. For the first part (I) Ag/ZnO nanocomposite was synthesized. Here we investigated an influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) addition during the synthesis on the particle properties and their photoactivity. The second part (II) describes procedure development of ZnO based semiconductor-semiconductor composite that resulted in synthesis of highly efficient ZnO/CuWO4 composite. Ag/ZnO nanocomposite was synthesized from precursors in ethylene glycol (EG) in a hydrothermal reactor at 180 °C for 3h. No further thermal treatment was required after the synthesis since all samples showed good crystallinity. Silver precursor loading was 2.7 wt%, because this amount has shown the best photoactivity in preliminary sample testings. Two separate batches of Ag/ZnO nanopowders were prepared, one with addition of PVP, one without (labelled Ag/ZnO and Ag/ZnO*, respectively). All powders were in nanometer range, TEM images showed a major difference between the samples with and without PVP. While Ag nanoparticles were deposited uniformly over ZnO, Ag/ZnO* exhibited a substantial agglomeration of Ag. The photocatalytic efficiency was assessed under UV-Vis light. Ag/ZnO reached complete decolourization of 10–5 M methyl orange (MO) already in 80 min after the beginning of irradiation. The calculated degradation rate constant (k) for the Ag/ZnO was almost 2-times larger than for TiO2 P25 and 4-times larger than for ZnO. Ag/ZnO* also showed higher activity than pure ZnO*, but was inferior to Ag/ZnO (1.6-times of Ag/ZnO*). A reusability test performed on Ag/ZnO showed an excellent photoactivity of reused powders; second and third cycle exhibited higher photoactivity than the first cycle. The supreme photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO was also confirmed by degradation of terephthalic acid. To develop an efficient semiconductor-semiconductor heterostructure we have synthesized a combination of several materials with ZnO. We performed preliminary photocatalytic tests in order to assess the functionality of these heterostructures. The tested systems were the following: ZnO/MWCNT, ZnO/GO, ZnO/SiC, ZnO/Co3O4, ZnO/AgVO3. The synthesis of heterostructures was done via hydrothermal synthesis. The commercial or synthesized powers were dispersed together with the ZnO precursor in EG medium (180 °C/3h). The aim was to obtain higher photoactivity than that of pure ZnO. None of these systems was able to outperform pure ZnO. ZnO/CuWO4 system has, however, significantly improved ZnO photoactivity. Several synthesis routes were investigated, including the influence of different structure directing agents (PVP, CTAB, starch). The best performing system was obtained by separate hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO and CuWO4 in water with PVP. XRD analysis confirmed that to obtain the crystalline CuWO4 thermal treatment (500 °C) is needed. The heterostructure was also synthesized in ethanolic solution. ZnO particles were in a nanometer range, CuWO4 were larger and ranged from 200 to 400 nm. CuWO4 has successfully decreased the charge recombination in ZnO, which was confirmed by transient absorption spectroscopy studies. The photocatalytic activity was assessed for both MO and TPA (10–4 M) degradation. The ZnO/CuWO4 composite has completely decolourized the dye in 60 min of UV-Vis irradiation. k for ZnO/CuWO4 was ~2.5-times larger than that of ZnO. A 3-cycle reusability test with MO showed a small decrease in efficiency in the last cycle. TPA degradation has revealed lower efficiency for ZnO/CuWO4 in air but high efficiency in O2 and N2 atmosphere, where it reached 90% and 55% degradation rate, respectively.
Keywords: photocatalysis, zinc oxide, heterostructures, powders, Ag/ZnO composites, ZnO/CuWO4 composites
Published in RUNG: 31.05.2017; Views: 6510; Downloads: 363
.pdf Full text (4,11 MB)

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