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21.
The ‘Physiognomic Fallacy:’ An Archaeology of the Photographic Identity Document
Polonyi Eszter, unpublished conference contribution

Abstract: In an era of allegedly total surveillance (Goh, Galloway), possession of a biometric identity document can still result in being denied one’s identity or being mistaken for someone else. States have been outsourcing the processes of civic management and local governance to artificial intelligence corporations with increasing intensity since the pandemic despite awareness of systematic errors committed by facial recognition software, a “coded” bias (Kantayya, Buolamwini) that risks the further effacing an already marginalized population of non-white and non-gender conforming subjects. The project this paper is based on returns to the time it first became standard practice to validate state-issued ID documents using facial analysis in Europe of the 1920s and 1930s. While at this time images derived from human heads in photographic albums, personality tests and facial atlases purportedly aimed to record personality and character, they nonetheless often instructed their readers to locate these in parts of images that remain disconnected from the head, such as hands and feet, hair, clothing or in the subject’s immediate environment. Drawing on the concept of conjectural knowledge (Ginzburg), embodiment or tact (Balazs) and the optical unconscious (Benjamin), the project seeks to locate the “physiognomic fallacy” (Gray) in early attempts at humanizing machine vision.
Keywords: History of art, critical theory, surveillance studies
Published in RUNG: 13.01.2023; Views: 1122; Downloads: 0
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22.
Franz Ferjan’s Color Stereography: Expanding Sensory Perception
Polonyi Eszter, 2022, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Keywords: history of photography, Slovenian photography, stereoscopy, modernism, history of art
Published in RUNG: 13.01.2023; Views: 1145; Downloads: 0
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23.
Agnes and Dora Bulwer's Photographs of Everyday Italians
Martina Caruso, 2022, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: In the photographs of British sisters Agnes and Dora Bulwer taken at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, I argue for an early humanist vision of the peasants, children and workers that they photographed on their travels around Italy.
Keywords: History of photography, protohumanism, modernity, Italy, Roman Campagna, Abruzzo, archaeology, peasants, workers, Victorian, gender, women
Published in RUNG: 13.01.2023; Views: 1168; Downloads: 0
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24.
Mobility Media: an Archaeology of Identity Photography through Science, Art and Visual Culture
Eszter Polonyi, invited lecture at foreign university

Abstract: In an era of total surveillance, being in possession of a biometric ID document can still result in denial of one’s basic civil protections and human rights. The discovery of systematic errors in state-implemented facial recognition programs—such as in recognizing faces of color (Joy Buolamwini)—suggests the failure of current practices of global intelligence and mobility. This paper offers an archaeological investigation of the contemporary photo ID document. Returning to its invention in the 1920s, it examines the issues of conjectural knowledge (Carl Ginzburg), embodiment or tact (Béla Balázs) and the optical unconscious (Walter Benjamin) behind early “physiognomic” media.
Keywords: History of Science, History of Visual Culture, History of Art, History of Photography, Migration
Published in RUNG: 13.01.2023; Views: 1074; Downloads: 0
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25.
Women in Ruins: Agnes and Dora Bulwer's landscape photographs in Post-Risorgimento Italy
Martina Caruso, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The British photographers Agnes Bulwer (1856– 1940) and her sister Dora Ellinor Bulwer (1864– 1948) left a legacy of circa 1300 photographs and 890 negatives, date from 1890 to 1913, to the British School at Rome. The photographs are principally of landscapes taken in Rome and the surrounding countryside (the Roman Campagna) but also further afield in Italy and abroad. Many include archaeological and natural sites as well as monuments, art works, and homes and gardens in urban or rural scenes. Their landscape photographs offer a perspective that challenged the existing masculine gaze as developed in landscape photography under the colonial project of the British Empire. Unfettered by the archaeologist’s need for ascetic facts, the Bulwers pioneered an unusual vision of landscape, inspired by the progressive international environment of post-Unification Italy. Agnes and Dora Bulwer often photographed women, whether Italian peasants or travelling companions, presenting a social and gendered gaze that helps to reconsider this period in the light of a dawning international humanitarianism. In spite of their photographic legacy, Agnes and Dora Bulwer remain relatively unknown in the growing field of rediscovered early female photographers connected to archaeology or travel photography. This article reveals their work within a cross-cultural, historical and phenomenological analysis, contributing a new chapter to women’s photographic history, to travel and landscape photography and to the history of British photographers working in Italy.
Keywords: history of photography, landscape photography, archive, gender, archaeology, cultural tourism, travel photography, Italy, Rome, Roman Campagna, Post-Unification, Post-Risorgimento, Britain, British Empire, United Kingdom, colonialism, Victorian, Edwardian, humanitarian socialism, nineteenth century, twentieth century
Published in RUNG: 11.01.2023; Views: 1657; Downloads: 0
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26.
Speckle interferometric investigation of argon pressure-induced surface roughness modifications in RF-sputtered MoO[sub]3 film
S. Soumya, R. Arun Kumar, S. Sreejyothi, Vimal Raj, Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu Swapna, Sankaranarayana Iyer Sankararaman, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Film quality analysis is of more considerable signifcance due to its diversifed applications in various felds of technology. The present work reports the speckle interferometric analysis of the argon pressure-induced surface roughness modifcations of RF sputtered MoO3 flms. The paper suggests a new method of surface quality analysis of thin flms through a parameter δ, which is the diference between the initial and fnal inertia moment values in the study of the thermal-induced dynamic speckle pattern. The limitations of root mean square surface roughness analysis of the atomic force microscopic image of the flms is also exemplifed. The research suggests that argon pressure plays a vital role in the surface property of RF sputtered flms and also that the dynamic speckle analysis can give precise information about the quality of flms. The contour plot of particle displacement vector under thermal stress, suggests the degree of uniformity in the distribution of particles in the flm.
Keywords: speckle pattern interferometry, time history of speckle pattern, cross correlation, inertia moment
Published in RUNG: 04.07.2022; Views: 1343; Downloads: 0
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27.
Red modernism : the films of Miklos Jansco
2022, radio or television broadcast, podcast, interview, press conference

Abstract: One of the most acclaimed Eastern European directors of the late 1960s, Miklos Jancsó became known for his abstract long-take style which explored the intersections of power, politics, history, and myth. (“Radical form in the service of radical content,” as the Village Voice film critic, James Hoberman, put it back then.) Now that the Beacon Cinema in Columbia City is hosting a retrospective of six of his films (including Red Psalm, which won him the best director prize at the 1972 Cannes Film Festival), Red May has invited three film scholars--Eszter Polonyi, Zoran Samardzija, and Steven Shaviro—to discuss Jancsó’s boldly stylized film language with Tommy Swenson, Film Curator of the Beacon Cinema
Keywords: Film history, East-Central cinemas, political cinema, art history
Published in RUNG: 31.05.2022; Views: 1912; Downloads: 8
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28.
"Obstaja del vašega obraza, ki pripada državi" : Tehnologije nadzora se vse bolj osredotočajo na človeški obraz
2021, interview

Abstract: Covid-19 je na svetovni ravni okrepil državni nadzor, vse pogosteje moramo posegati po osebnih dokumentih, pri čemer je osrednji subjekt identifikacije postal človeški obraz – na katerem temeljijo tudi najnovejše tehnologije nadzora.
Keywords: surveillance studies, history of photography, art history
Published in RUNG: 31.05.2022; Views: 1419; Downloads: 21
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29.
Mobility Media: an Archaeology of Identity Photography through Science, Art and Visual Culture
Eszter Polonyi, unpublished conference contribution

Abstract: n an era of total surveillance, being in possession of a biometric ID document can still result in denial of one’s basic civil protections and human rights. The discovery of systematic errors in state-implemented facial recognition programs—such as in recognizing faces of color (Joy Buolamwini)—suggests the failure of current practices of global intelligence and mobility. This paper offers an archaeological investigation of the contemporary photo ID document. Returning to its invention in the 1920s, it examines the issues of conjectural knowledge (Carl Ginzburg), embodiment or tact (Béla Balázs) and the optical unconscious (Walter Benjamin) behind early “physiognomic” media.
Keywords: history of photography, surveillance studies, digital humanities, art history
Published in RUNG: 31.05.2022; Views: 1549; Downloads: 0
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30.
Hackers and Coders versus Viewers: The Stakes of Photography in an Era of Image Massification : Tomáš Dvořák and Jussi Parikka, eds., Photography Off the Scale: Technologies and Theories of the Mass Image (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2021).
Eszter Polonyi, 2021, review article

Abstract: The book Photography Off the Scale: Technologies and Theories of the Mass Image is, first of all, about quantities. Those with memories of pre-smartphone years may suspect that the images of this world have increased in number. Perhaps fewer, however, are aware of just how much. Among the first things we learn in this book is that, in 2018, over 30 million images were uploaded to Twitter, 52 million to Instagram, and 350 million to Facebook — daily (25). For someone who makes a handful of uploads a week, this was news. Who could possibly be looking at them? It turns out, no one. Even if everyone on Earth spent eight hours scrolling through images, they would not all get seen (25). The quantities are just too large. This book claims that the now unconscionable scale at which images circulate and are produced is because they are actually no longer tailored to the human. Interrogating an optics of “ec- centric metrics” (Dvořák), the book tackles one of the liveliest issues in image studies, media studies, and art history today — machine vision, or the vision of the human eye as it is extended by technical apparatuses. It is this seeing “by other means” that the book alleges has thrown the number of images “off the scale.”
Keywords: history of photography, digital humanities, art history
Published in RUNG: 30.05.2022; Views: 1830; Downloads: 0
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