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Sensitivity of CTA to gamma-ray emission from the Perseus galaxy cluster
Judit Pérez Romero, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: In these proceedings we summarize the current status of the study of the sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to detect diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Perseus galaxy cluster. Gamma-ray emission is expected in galaxy clusters both from interactions of cosmic rays (CR) with the intra-cluster medium, or as a product of annihilation or decay of dark matter (DM) particles in case they are weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). The observation of Perseus constitutes one of the Key Science Projects to be carried out by the CTA Consortium. In this contribution, we focus on the DM-induced component of the flux. OurDMmodelling includes the substructures we expect in the main halo which will boost the annihilation signal significantly. We adopt an ON/OFF observation strategy and simulate the expected gamma-ray signals. Finally we compute the expected CTA sensitivity using a likelihood maximization analysis including the most recent CTA instrument response functions. In absence of signal, we show that CTA will allow us to provide stringent and competitive constraints on TeV DM, especially for the case of DM decay.
Keywords: dark matter, gamma-ray astronomy, galaxy clusters, cosmic rays and astroparticles
Published in RUNG: 27.01.2023; Views: 1245; Downloads: 15
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Spatial extension of dark subhalos as seen by Fermi-LAT and the implications for WIMP constraints
Javier Coronado-Blázquez, Miguel Sánchez-Conde, Judit Pérez Romero, Alejandra Aguirre-Santaella, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Spatial extension has been hailed as a “smoking gun” in the gamma-ray search of dark galactic subhalos, which would appear as unidentified sources for gamma-ray telescopes. In this work, we study the sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT to extended subhalos using simulated data based on a realistic sky model. We simulate spatial templates for a set of representative subhalos, whose parameters were derived from our previous work with N-body cosmological simulation data. We find that detecting an extended subhalo and finding an unequivocal signal of angular extension requires, respectively, a flux 2 to 10 times larger than in the case of a pointlike source. By studying a large grid of models, where parameters such as the WIMP mass, annihilation channel, or subhalo model are varied significantly, we obtain the response of the LAT as a function of the product of annihilation cross-section times the J-factor. Indeed, we show that spatial extension can be used as an additional “filter” to reject subhalos candidates among the pool of unidentified LAT sources, as well as a smoking gun for positive identification. For instance, typical angular extensions of a few tenths of a degree are expected for the considered scenarios. Finally, we also study the impact of the obtained LAT sensitivity to such extended subhalos on the achievable dark matter constraints, which are a few times less constraining than comparable point-source limits.
Keywords: dark matter, cosmic rays and astroparticles, gamma-ray astronomy, particle astrophysics, particle dark matter
Published in RUNG: 26.01.2023; Views: 1567; Downloads: 0
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Measurement of the proton-air cross section with Telescope Array's Black Rock Mesa and Long Ridge fluorescence detectors, and surface array in hybrid mode
R. U. Abbasi, Mitsuhiro Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Ultra high energy cosmic rays provide the highest known energy source in the universe to measure proton cross sections. Though conditions for collecting such data are less controlled than an accelerator environment, current generation cosmic ray observatories have large enough exposures to collect significant statistics for a reliable measurement for energies above what can be attained in the lab. Cosmic ray measurements of cross section use atmospheric calorimetry to measure depth of air shower maximum (Xmax), which is related to the primary particle’s energy and mass. The tail of the Xmax distribution is assumed to be dominated by showers generated by protons, allowing measurement of the inelastic proton-air cross section. In this work the proton-air inelastic cross section measurement, σ_inel_p−air, using data observed by Telescope Array’s Black Rock Mesa and Long Ridge fluorescence detectors and surface detector array in hybrid mode is presented. σ_inel_p−air is observed to be 520.1 ± 35.8 [Stat.] +25.0 −40 [Sys.] mb at √s = 73 TeV. The total proton-proton cross section is subsequently inferred from Glauber formalism and is found to be σ_tot_pp = 139.4 +23.4−21.3[Stat.] +15.0−24.0[Sys.] mb.
Keywords: cosmic rays, astroparticles, proton-air cross section
Published in RUNG: 04.02.2021; Views: 2504; Downloads: 0
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Marta Trini, 2019, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: The detection of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) neutrinos around and above 10 18 eV (1 EeV) can be the key to answering the long-standing question of the origin of the UHE cosmic rays. The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest experiment that can detect the extensive air showers produced when the cosmic rays and neutrinos interact in the earth’s atmosphere. In particular, with the Infilled array of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory we can detect sub-EeV neutrino-induced particle showers. In this thesis we demonstrate that it is possible to discriminate neutrino-induced showers from the background showers produced by the more numerous nucleonic cosmic rays. The sensitivity to neutrinos is enhanced in the inclined directions with respect to the vertical to the ground, where cosmic ray-induced showers starting in the upper layers of the atmosphere are dominated by the muonic component of the shower, while deeply- penetrating neutrino showers in contrast exhibit a large electromagnetic component. Based on this idea in this thesis we have developed a search procedure for UHE neutrinos that consists on selecting inclined events in the Infilled array of the Pierre Auger Observatory in which the signals in the water-Cherenkov stations are spread in time, characteristic of the presence of electromagnetic component in the shower. We have established a complete chain of criteria to first select the inclined events among the sample of all events triggering the Infilled array, and then identifying those that have a large electromagnetic component at ground, and hence can be considered as neutrino candidates. We have identified a single variable, the so-called area-over-peak averaged over all of the stations in each event, as a suitable observable for neutrino identification purposes. The neutrino selection was established using extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the neutrino-induced showers in the Infilled array of Auger as well as a fraction of the data assumed to be totally constituted of background nucleonic cosmic rays. Using these neutrino simulations we have also computed the exposure of the Infilled array to UHE neutrinos in the period 1 January 04 - 31 December 2017. Associated systematic uncertainties on the exposure are also described. Expecting no candidate neutrinos in the period up to 31 December 2017, and adopting a differential neutrino diffuse flux dN ν /dE ν = k E ν −2 in the energy range from 0.05 to 1 EeV, we have obtained a 90% C.L. upper limit on the all neutrino flavor, k 90 < 7.97 × 10 −8 GeV cm −2 s −1 sr −1 .
Keywords: astroparticles, astrophysical neutrinos, cosmic rays showers, Pierre Auger Observatory, Infilled array
Published in RUNG: 03.10.2019; Views: 4983; Downloads: 150
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High Energy Astrophysics
Lili Yang, unpublished conference contribution

Abstract: I was invited as a lecturer at the Sumer School on Astrophysics and Astroparticles in Petnica Serbia. I gave talks on "High Energy Astrophysics", where I mainly focused on the production, propagation and detection of high energy astroparticles. Especially, I introduced the current experiments and technique and facilities.
Keywords: High-energy astroparticles, experiments, detection, production
Published in RUNG: 06.12.2016; Views: 5714; Downloads: 0
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High-energy Astroparticle Detection
Lili Yang, invited lecture at foreign university

Abstract: Astroparticle Physics has evolved as a new interdisciplinary field at the intersection of particle physics, astronomy and cosmology, addressing some of the most fundamental questions of contemporary physics. As the cosmic messengers, neutrinos, cosmic rays, gamma rays and also gravitational waves, take the information from the universe to tell us more about the story. Physicists have been developing experiments to detect and study these messengers. I would like to talk about the basic ideas and searching results from the dedicate cosmic ray detector Pierre Auger Observatory and also the future performance of Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next-generation ground based telescope array. CTA will play an very important role in detecting GeV-TeV gamma rays and represents the era of precision gamma ray astronomy. The multi-messenger and multi-wavelength study with various messengers are the main field in astrophysics.
Keywords: High-energy astroparticles, CTA, Pierre Auger Observatory
Published in RUNG: 06.12.2016; Views: 4937; Downloads: 0
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