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Measurements and modeling of air mass motion in the troposphere
Miha Živec, 2016, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Throughout the history human race depended on weather, so one of the priorities for its survival was to understand weather patterns and to be able to forecast weather. With the development of powerful computers, atmospheric numerical methods and precision instruments for atmospheric monitoring, it is possible to predict weather with greater accuracy and for a longer period of time ahead. At the same time, we are able to gain improved understanding of physical processes that occur in the atmosphere and represent one of most important features in our world. This diploma thesis focuses on the lowest part of the atmosphere - troposphere only, as all weather occurs in the troposphere. Weather is a complete collection of momentary thermodynamic states in the atmosphere and is defined with thermodynamic variables and relations between them. The goal of this thesis is development and presentation of a new way to determine the direction and speed of air mass movement, based on the combination of passive and active remote sensing techniques. A lidar is being used to determine the range to an object, in our case a cloud, that can be used as a tracer in the air current. Simultaneously with lidar ranging of clouds that same clouds are being visually monitored in a series of optical photographs. Selecting and following the temporal evolution of distinct cloud features and their range allows us to calculate the speed of clouds. The performance of this method was tested on four cases in Feb. and Mar. 2016. Measurements were performed in Ajdovščina in different weather conditions. Along with remote sensing (infra-red lidar and optical cameras), ground measurements of wind at Ajdovščina were performed. Wind speeds and directions obtained from remote sensing were compared to atmospheric sounding data from Ljubljana and Udine at similar heights and performed within as small as possible time window. In all four cases remote sensing results for wind speeds and directions agree relatively well with atmospheric sounding. Deviations are expected to be primarily due to spatial and temporal mismatch between sounding and remote sensing measurements. Another source of uncertainties are the limitations of the present remote sensing method in the determination of the actual direction of the wind, however, theses limitations could be eliminated in the future by using an all-sky camera and vertical lidar configuration.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...of physical processes that occur in the atmosphere and represent one of most important features...
Keywords: remote sensing, wind, atmosphere
Published: 13.10.2016; Views: 4497; Downloads: 128
.pdf Fulltext (9,48 MB)

Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign
Damien Martin, K Fredrik Petersson, Iain R White, Stephen H Henshaw, Graham Nickless, Amy Lovelock, Janet F Barlow, Tyrone Dunbar, Curtis R Wood, Dudley E. Shallcross, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon) experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...advection, concentration (composition), dispersion, tracer, urban atmosphere, vertical mixing, vertical profile...
Keywords: advection, concentration (composition), dispersion, tracer, urban atmosphere, vertical mixing, vertical profile
Published: 18.07.2019; Views: 1006; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,49 MB)

Atmospheric chemistry and physics in the atmosphere of a developed megacity (London): An overview of the REPARTEE experiment and its conclusions
Gavin J Phillips, Carole Helfter, Chiara F Di Marco, Eiko Nemitz, Fay Davies, Janet F Barlow, Tyrone Dunbar, Iain R White, Dudley E Shallcross, Stephen J Henshaw, K Fredrik Peterson, Brian Davison, Damien Martin, Ben Langford, C Nicholas Hewitt, Stephen M Ball, Justin M Langridge, A K Benton, Roderick L Jones, Paul I Williams, John Whitehead, Martin W Gallagher, Claire Martin, James R Dorsey, Hugh Coe, James D Allan, William J Bloss, Alistair J Thorpe, David C S Beddows, Manuel DallOsto, Roy M Harrison, Steven Smith, 2012, review article

Abstract: The Regents Park and Tower Environmental Experiment (REPARTEE) comprised two campaigns in London in October 2006 and October/November 2007. The experiment design involved measurements at a heavily trafficked roadside site, two urban background sites and an elevated site at 160-190 m above ground on the BT Tower, supplemented in the second campaign by Doppler lidar measurements of atmospheric vertical structure. A wide range of measurements of airborne particle physical metrics and chemical composition were made as well as measurements of a considerable range of gas phase species and the fluxes of both particulate and gas phase substances. Significant findings include (a) demonstration of the evaporation of traffic-generated nanoparticles during both horizontal and vertical atmospheric transport; (b) generation of a large base of information on the fluxes of nanoparticles, accumulation mode particles and specific chemical components of the aerosol and a range of gas phase species, as well as the elucidation of key processes and comparison with emissions inventories; (c) quantification of vertical gradients in selected aerosol and trace gas species which has demonstrated the important role of regional transport in influencing concentrations of sulphate, nitrate and secondary organic compounds within the atmosphere of London; (d) generation of new data on the atmospheric structure and turbulence above London, including the estimation of mixed layer depths; (e) provision of new data on trace gas dispersion in the urban atmosphere through the release of purposeful tracers; (f) the determination of spatial differences in aerosol particle size distributions and their interpretation in terms of sources and physico-chemical transformations; (g) studies of the nocturnal oxidation of nitrogen oxides and of the diurnal behaviour of nitrate aerosol in the urban atmosphere, and (h) new information on the chemical composition and source apportionment of particulate matter size fractions in the atmosphere of London derived both from bulk chemical analysis and aerosol mass spectrometry with two instrument types.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: megacity, trace gas, urban atmosphere, atmospheric transport, chemical composition, aerosol
Published: 18.07.2019; Views: 1050; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (4,66 MB)

Cloud and Atmosphere Metagenomics
Tina Šantl Temkiv, Kai Finster, Ulrich Gosewinkel, 2014, professional entry in dictionary, encyclopaedia or lexicon

Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: airborne microorganisms, atmosphere metagenomics
Published: 08.01.2021; Views: 403; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (121,57 KB)

Biogenic Sources of Ice Nucleating Particles at the High Arctic Site Villum Research Station
Tina Šantl Temkiv, Robert Lange, David Beddows, Urška Rauter, Stephanie Pilgaard, Manuel Dall’Osto, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Andreas Massling, Heike Wex, 2019, original scientific article

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Arctic atmosphere, Arctic climate, biogenic ice nucleating particles,...
Keywords: Arctic atmosphere, Arctic climate, biogenic ice nucleating particles, airborne bacteria, bioaerosols, ice nucleating particles
Published: 04.01.2021; Views: 300; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (4,42 MB)

Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory
J. Hueber, Sumit Kumar, J. A. Perlinger, Katja Džepina, Claudio Mazzoleni, Paulo Fialho, Swarup China, Bo Zhang, R. Chris Owen, D. Helmig, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m above mean sea level on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located ∼ 3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ± 0.7 µg m−3 . On average, organic aerosol components represent the largest mass fraction of the total measured aerosol (60 ± 51 %), followed by sulfate (23 ± 28 %), nitrate (13 ± 10 %), chloride (2 ± 3 %), and elemental carbon (2 ± 2 %). Water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100–1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas had unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. FLEXPART retroplume analyses showed the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). These aged aerosol WSOM compounds had an average O /C ratio of ∼ 0.45, which is relatively low compared to O /C ratios of other aged aerosol. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in the WSOM and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic species suggests that the aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory had undergone cloud processing before reaching the site. Finally, the air masses of 9/25 were more aged and influenced by marine emissions, as indicated by the presence of organosulfates and other species characteristic of marine aerosol. The change in the air masses for the two samples was corroborated by the changes in ethane, propane, and ozone, morphology of particles, as well as by the FLEXPART retroplume simulations. This paper presents the first detailed molecular characterization of free tropospheric aged aerosol intercepted at a lower free troposphere remote location and provides evidence of low oxygenation after long-range transport. We hypothesize this is a result of the selective removal of highly aged and polar species during long-range transport, because the aerosol underwent a combination of atmospheric processes during transport facilitating aqueous-phase removal (e.g., clouds processing) and fragmentation (e.g., photolysis) of components.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR MS, electron microscopy,, remote marine atmosphere, Pico Mountain Observatory...
Keywords: organic aerosol, ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR MS, electron microscopy, remote marine atmosphere, Pico Mountain Observatory
Published: 11.04.2021; Views: 50; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (4,36 MB)

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