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The Joint Aeolus Tropical Atlantic Campaign 2021/2022 overview : atmospheric science and satellite validation in the tropics
Thorsten Fehr, Griša Močnik, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: ESA’s Aeolus satellite observations are expected to have the biggest impact for the improvement of numerical weather prediction in the Tropics. An important case relating to the predictability of tropical weather systems is the outflow of Saharan dust, its interaction with cloud microphysics and impact on the development of tropical storms over the Atlantic Ocean.The Joint Aeolus Tropical Atlantic Campaign (JATAC) deployed on Cabo Verde (2021/2022) and the US Virgin Islands (2021) supported the validation and preparation of the ESA missions Aeolus, EarthCARE and WIVERN, and addressed science objectives regarding the Saharan Aerosol layer, African Easterly Waves and Jet, Tropical Easterly Jet, and the Intertropical Convergence Zone, as well as their relation to the formation of convective systems, and the long-range transport of dust and its impact on air quality.JATAC started in July 2021 with the deployment of ground-based instruments in the frame of the ASKOS project at the Ocean Science Center Mindelo, including the eVe and PollyXT lidars, and a W-band Doppler cloud radar. By mid-August, the CPEX-AW campaign started operations from the US Virgin Islands with NASA’s DC-8 flying laboratory in the Western Tropical Atlantic and Caribbean carrying the Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN), Airborne Precipitation and Cloud Radar (APR-3), Water Vapor DIAL and HSRL (HALO), microwave sounder (HAMSR) and dropsondes. In September the DLR Falcon-20 aircraft, carrying the ALADIN Airborne Demonstrator (A2D) and the 2-µm Doppler wind lidar, and the Safire Falcon-20, carrying the high-spectral-resolution Doppler lidar (LNG), the RASTA Doppler cloud radar, in-situ cloud and aerosol instruments, and dropsondes, were deployed to Sal in the frame of the AVATAR-T and CADDIWA projects. The Aerovizija Advantic WT-10 light aircraft with optical particle spectrometers, filter-photometers and nephelometers for in-situ aerosol characterisation was operating in close coordination with the ground-based observations in the CAVA-AW project.The activities continued in June 2022 when the ASKOS ground based observations were enhanced with UAV airborne in-situ aerosol measurements deployed by the Cyprus Institute, solar radiation measurements supported by PMOD/WRC, dust particle orientation measurements (WALL-E lidar), and radiosonde releases equipped with electric field-mills. NASA deployed the DC-8 aircraft all September to Sal with the 2021 payload in the framework of the CPEX-CV activity, including regular radiosonde launches. As in 2021, the Aerovizija aircraft took part with in-situ aerosol measurements during two weeks in September. JATAC was supported by dedicated numerical weather and dust simulations supporting forecasting efforts and addressing open science questions.Around 60 scientific flights of four aircraft, with an additional 25 UAV flights, were performed during JATAC. 23 Aeolus orbits were underflown, many of them with simultaneous observations of multiple aircraft collocated with ground-based observations. In addition, the science objectives were fully covered through the large number of flights, ground based cloud and aerosol observations, regular radiosondes and dropsondes.Overall, JATAC activities have resulted in a high-quality and comprehensive dataset supporting a wide range of tropical atmospheric research, the validation of Aeolus and other satellites, and have provided key reference data for the development future Earth Observation missions.
Keywords: Aeolus satellite, airborne measurements, mineral dust, cal/val, calibration, validation
Published in RUNG: 21.12.2023; Views: 907; Downloads: 4
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Effect of optical properties of FDs on reconstruction analysis
Daiki Sato, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The TA experiment uses fluorescence telescopes to observe cosmic ray air showers. The telescope camera uses PMTs as Pixels. The telescope’s PMT pointing direction has an uncertainty of 0.1°, and more precise measurements of the telescope's optical properties are needed to more accurately reconstruct the cosmic ray air showers. We have developed the Opt-copter which is a light source mounted on a drone that can be flown within the telescope's field of view. Observational experiments with the Opt-copter have provided a more accurate analysis of the telescope viewing direction. In this study, we estimate the effect of this measurement of accurate telescope viewing direction on the reconstruction of cosmic ray air showers.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, calibration, Xmax
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 971; Downloads: 6
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FOV direction and image size calibration of Fluorescence Detector using light source on UAV
A. Nakazawa, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: In the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, we have been observing cosmic rays using a Fluorescence Detector (FD). More than 10 years have passed since we started this observation, and the accuracy of the observation has become more important than ever. We have developed the "Opt-copter" as a calibration device for the FDs. The Opt-copter is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a light source and can fly freely within the FD's field of view (FOV). In addition, the Opt-copter is equipped with a high-precision RTK-GPS, which enables it to accurately determine the position of the light source in flight. With this device, we can obtain detailed information on the optical characteristics of the FD. So far, we have reported on the configuration of the device and the analysis of the FOV direction. In this presentation, we will report on the new FOV analysis and image size analysis.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, light source, calibration, UAV, FOV
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1087; Downloads: 7
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JATAC/CAVA-AW Aeolus Cal/Val airborne campaign dataset
Jesús Yus-Díez, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Marija Bervida, Blaž Žibert, Uroš Jagodič, Matevž Lenarčič, complete scientific database of research data

Abstract: Light aircraft (WT10 - experimental) with position and windspeed variables provided by onboard GPS, as well as additional meteorological sensors. The aircraft was mounted with a: a sunshine pyranometer type SPN1 (Delta-T Devices Ltd), a polar integrating nephelometer AURORA 4000 (Ecotech Pty Ltd), and had a dual sampling line aircraft for measurements at the fine and coarse fraction of the absorption by two Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAPS, by Haze Instruments d.o.o.) and the particle size distribution by two optical particle counters (OPC, model 11D, GRIMM Technologies). The pyranometer provides measurements of the global, direct and diffuse irradiance for a radiation spectrum range between 400 and 2700nm with a 1s time resolution. The polar integrating nephelometer measures the scattering coefficients of particles at three wavelengths (450, 525 and 635 nm) and multiple angles (two selected for the campaign: 0, 90deg) with a 5s time resolution. The CLAP photometers measure the absorption coefficient by aerosol particles at three wavelengths (467, 529 and 653 nm) with a 1s time resolution. The OPC measurements provide the number and mass concentration of aerosol particles for 31 bins in the size range between 0.253 and 35.15 micrometers with a 6s time resolution. The 2021 and 2022 campaigns are found at:
Keywords: Aeolus satellite, Saharan dust, aerosol, calibration, validation
Published in RUNG: 27.09.2023; Views: 1042; Downloads: 9
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Aleksandar Kuzmanovski, 2022, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Calibration of measuring instruments in the industry is a process that is done regularly both internally by internal laboratories operating within the companies and externally by accredited external laboratories. The goal of the diploma thesis was to document and carry out the calibration process of a production line within a manufacturing plant, and to deliver a final report on the overall calibration. The result is obtained by calculating the combined uncertainty of the measurement process. As any measurement is gathered certain uncertainties are bound to influence the measurements, in our case we have three main uncertainties which are the standard uncertainty, uncertainty due to the resolution of the measuring instrument and the uncertainty from the calibration certificate from the measuring equipment that is used in the measurement process. The final combined uncertainty is calculated with the standard uncertainty which has a 68% confidence that the true value lies within that range therefore we need to expand the range to obtain a 95% confidence and we achieve this by multiplication of the combined uncertainty with the K = 2 factor.
Keywords: Metrology, calibration, adjustment, measurement errors, measurement uncertainty, measuring instruments, measuring equipment.
Published in RUNG: 05.01.2023; Views: 1631; Downloads: 38
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A dual-wavelength photothermal aerosol absorption monitor : design, calibration and performance
Luka Drinovec, Uroš Jagodič, Luka Pirker, Miha Škarabot, Mario Kurtjak, Kristijan Vidović, Luca Ferrero, Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Ernest Weingartner, Daniel M. Kalbermatter, Konstantina Vasilatou, Griša Močnik, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: There exists a lack of aerosol absorption measurement techniques with low uncertainties and without artefacts. We have developed the two-wavelength Photothermal Aerosol Absorption Monitor (PTAAM-2λ), which measures the aerosol absorption coefficient at 532 and 1064 nm. Here we describe its design, calibration and mode of operation and evaluate its applicability, limits and uncertainties. The 532 nm channel was calibrated with ∼ 1 µmol mol−1 NO2, whereas the 1064 nm channel was calibrated using measured size distribution spectra of nigrosin particles and a Mie calculation. Since the aerosolized nigrosin used for calibration was dry, we determined the imaginary part of the refractive index of nigrosin from the absorbance measurements on solid thin film samples. The obtained refractive index differed considerably from the one determined using aqueous nigrosin solution. PTAAM-2λ has no scattering artefact and features very low uncertainties: 4 % and 6 % for the absorption coefficient at 532 and 1064 nm, respectively, and 9 % for the absorption Ångström exponent. The artefact-free nature of the measurement method allowed us to investigate the artefacts of filter photometers. Both the Aethalometer AE33 and CLAP suffer from cross-sensitivity to scattering – this scattering artefact is most pronounced for particles smaller than 70 nm. We observed a strong dependence of the filter multiple scattering parameter on the particle size in the 100–500 nm range. The results from the winter ambient campaign in Ljubljana showed similar multiple scattering parameter values for ambient aerosols and laboratory experiments. The spectral dependence of this parameter resulted in AE33 reporting the absorption Ångström exponent for different soot samples with values biased 0.23–0.35 higher than the PTAAM-2λ measurement. Photothermal interferometry is a promising method for reference aerosol absorption measurements.
Keywords: aerosol absorption, calibration, black carbon
Published in RUNG: 28.06.2022; Views: 1399; Downloads: 25
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Calibration of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Aab, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: To obtain direct measurements of the muon content of extensive air showers with energy above 10[sup]16.5 eV, the Pierre Auger Observatory is currently being equipped with an underground muon detector (UMD), consisting of 219 10 m[sup]2-modules, each segmented into 64 scintillators coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Direct access to the shower muon content allows for the study of both of the composition of primary cosmic rays and of high-energy hadronic interactions in the forward direction. As the muon density can vary between tens of muons per m[sup]2 close to the intersection of the shower axis with the ground to much less than one per m[sup]2 when far away, the necessary broad dynamic range is achieved by the simultaneous implementation of two acquisition modes in the read-out electronics: the binary mode, tuned to count single muons, and the ADC mode, suited to measure a high number of them. In this work, we present the end-to-end calibration of the muon detector modules: first, the SiPMs are calibrated by means of the binary channel, and then, the ADC channel is calibrated using atmospheric muons, detected in parallel to the shower data acquisition. The laboratory and field measurements performed to develop the implementation of the full calibration chain of both binary and ADC channels are presented and discussed. The calibration procedure is reliable to work with the high amount of channels in the UMD, which will be operated continuously, in changing environmental conditions, for several years.
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, extensive air showers (EAS), EAS muonic component, Pierre Auger Observatory, underground muon detector, detector calibration
Published in RUNG: 14.04.2021; Views: 2937; Downloads: 139
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Raman LIDARs and atmospheric calibration along the line-of-sight of the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Samo Stanič, Longlong Wang, Marko Zavrtanik, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very-high energies. Employing more than 100 (north and south sites) Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes in the northern and southern hemispheres, it was designed to reach unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution. Understanding and correcting for systematic biases on the absolute energy scale and instrument response functions will be a cru- cial issue for the performance of CTA. The Montpellier group and the Spanish/Italian/Slovenian collaboration are currently building two Raman LIDAR prototypes for the online atmospheric cal- ibration along the line-of-sight of the CTA. Requirements for such a solution include the ability to characterize aerosol extinction at two wavelengths to distances up to 30 km with an accuracy better than 5%, within exposure time scales of about a minute, steering capabilities and close interaction with the CTA array control and data acquisition system as well as other auxiliary in- struments. Our Raman LIDARs have design features that make them different from those used in atmospheric science and are characterized by large collecting mirrors (∼2.5 m 2 ), liquid light- guides that collect the light at the focal plane and transport it to the readout system, reduced acquisition time and highly precise Raman spectrometers. The Raman LIDARs will participate in a cross-calibration and characterization campaign of the atmosphere at the CTA North site at La Palma, together with other site characterization instruments. After a one-year test period there, an in-depth evaluation of the solutions adopted by the two projects will lead to a final Raman LIDAR design proposal for both CTA sites.
Keywords: Raman lidar atmospheric calibration Cherenkov Telescope Array
Published in RUNG: 29.08.2019; Views: 3716; Downloads: 102
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