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Long-term brown carbon spectral characteristics in a Mediterranean city (Athens)
Eleni Liakakou, Dimitris G. Kaskaoutis, Georgios Grivas, Iasonas Stavroulas, M. Tsagkaraki, D. Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Umesh Chandra Dumka, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: This study analyses 4-years of continuous 7-λ Aethalometer (AE-33) measurements in an urban-background environment of Athens, to resolve the spectral absorption coefficients (babs) for black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC). An important BrC contribution (23.7 ± 11.6%) to the total babs at 370 nm is estimated for the period May 2015–April 2019, characterized by a remarkable seasonality with winter maximum (33.5 ± 13.6%) and summer minimum (18.5 ± 8.1%), while at longer wavelengths the BrC contribution is significantly reduced (6.8 ± 3.6% at 660 nm). The wavelength dependence of the total babs gives an annual-mean AAE370-880 of 1.31, with higher values in winter night-time. The BrC absorption and its contribution to babs presents a large increase reaching up to 39.1 ± 13.6% during winter nights (370 nm), suggesting residential wood burning (RWB) emissions as a dominant source for BrC. This is supported by strong correlations of the BrC absorption with OC, EC, the fragment ion m/z 60 derived from ACSM and PMF-analyzed organic fractions related to biomass burning (e.g. BBOA). In contrast, BrC absorption decreases significantly during daytime as well as in the warm period, reaching to a minimum during the early-afternoon hours in all seasons due to photo-chemical degradation. Estimated secondary BrC absorption is practically evident only during winter night-time, implying the fast oxidation of BrC species from RWB emissions. Changes in mixing-layer height do not significantly affect the BrC absorption in winter, while they play a major role in summer.
Keywords: spectral aerosol absorption, brown carbon, wood burning, organic aerosols, chemical composition, Athens
Published in RUNG: 10.05.2024; Views: 198; Downloads: 1
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In situ identification of aerosol types in Athens, Greece, based on long-term optical and on online chemical characterization
Dimitris G. Kaskaoutis, Georgios Grivas, Iasonas Stavroulas, Eleni Liakakou, Umesh Chandra Dumka, Konstantinos Dimitriou, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) and Scattering Ångström Exponent (SAE) values, derived from aethalometer and nephelometer measurements during a period of 3 years at an urban background site in Athens, are combined for the first aerosol type classification using in situ measurements in the eastern Mediterranean. In addition, single scattering albedo (SSA) and its wavelength dependence (dSSA), as well as the chemical composition of fine aerosols and precursor gases from collocated measurements, are utilized to provide further insights on the optical-chemical characterization and related sources of seven identified aerosol types. Urban aerosols are mostly characterized as Black Carbon (BC)-dominated (76.3%), representing a background atmosphere where fossil-fuel combustion is dominant throughout the year, while 14.3% of the cases correspond to the mixed Brown Carbon (BrC)-BC type, with a higher frequency in winter. The BrC type is associated with the highest scattering and absorption coefficients during winter nights, representing the impact from residential wood-burning emissions. Dust mixed with urban pollution (1.2%) and large particles mixed with BC (5.3%) have a higher frequency in spring. Furthermore, aging processes and BC coating with organic and inorganic species with weak spectral absorption (AAE<1) account for 2.2%, with a differentiation between small and large particles. dSSA is recognized as a useful parameter for aerosol characterization, since fine aerosols are associated with negative dSSA values. The identified aerosol types are examined on a seasonal, monthly, hourly basis and by potential source areas, as well as in comparison with fine-aerosol chemical composition and apportioned organic aerosol source contributions, in an attempt to explore the linkage between optical, physical and chemical aerosol properties. Chemical analysis indicates high organic fraction (60–68%) for the BrC and BrC/BC, 20–30% larger compared to other types. The results are essential for parametrization in chemical transport models and for reducing the uncertainty in the assessment of aerosol radiative effects.
Keywords: aerosol types, classification, AAE, SAE, dSSA, chemical composition, sources, Athens
Published in RUNG: 10.05.2024; Views: 167; Downloads: 2
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A European aerosol phenomenology - 7 : high-time resolution chemical characteristics of submicron particulate matter across Europe
M. Bressi, F. Cavalli, Jean-Philippe Putaud, R. Fröhlich, J. -E. Petit, W. Aas, M. Äijälä, A. Alastuey, J. D. Allan, M. Aurela, Iasonas Stavroulas, Marta Via, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Similarities and differences in the submicron atmospheric aerosol chemical composition are analyzed from a unique set of measurements performed at 21 sites across Europe for at least one year. These sites are located between 35 and 62°N and 10° W – 26°E, and represent various types of settings (remote, coastal, rural, industrial, urban). Measurements were all carried out on-line with a 30-min time resolution using mass spectroscopy based instruments known as Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (ACSM) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS) and following common measurement guidelines. Data regarding organics, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, as well as the sum of them called non-refractory submicron aerosol mass concentration ([NR-PM1]) are discussed. NR-PM1 concentrations generally increase from remote to urban sites. They are mostly larger in the mid-latitude band than in southern and northern Europe. On average, organics account for the major part (36–64%) of NR-PM1 followed by sulfate (12–44%) and nitrate (6–35%). The annual mean chemical composition of NR-PM1 at rural (or regional background) sites and urban background sites are very similar. Considering rural and regional background sites only, nitrate contribution is higher and sulfate contribution is lower in mid-latitude Europe compared to northern and southern Europe. Large seasonal variations in concentrations (μg/m³) of one or more components of NR-PM1 can be observed at all sites, as well as in the chemical composition of NR-PM1 (%) at most sites. Significant diel cycles in the contribution to [NR-PM1] of organics, sulfate, and nitrate can be observed at a majority of sites both in winter and summer. Early morning minima in organics in concomitance with maxima in nitrate are common features at regional and urban background sites. Daily variations are much smaller at a number of coastal and rural sites. Looking at NR-PM1 chemical composition as a function of NR-PM1 mass concentration reveals that although organics account for the major fraction of NR-PM1 at all concentration levels at most sites, nitrate contribution generally increases with NR-PM1 mass concentration and predominates when NR-PM1 mass concentrations exceed 40 μg/m³ at half of the sites.
Keywords: aerosol, chemical composition, mass spectrometry, phenomenology
Published in RUNG: 10.05.2024; Views: 166; Downloads: 2
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Atmospheric chemistry and physics in the atmosphere of a developed megacity (London): An overview of the REPARTEE experiment and its conclusions
Roy M Harrison, Manuel DallOsto, David C S Beddows, Alistair J Thorpe, William J Bloss, James D Allan, Hugh Coe, James R Dorsey, Martin W Gallagher, Claire Martin, John Whitehead, Paul I Williams, Roderick L Jones, Justin M Langridge, A K Benton, Stephen M Ball, Ben Langford, C Nicholas Hewitt, Brian Davison, Damien Martin, K Fredrik Peterson, Stephen J Henshaw, Iain R. White, Dudley E Shallcross, Janet F Barlow, Tyrone Dunbar, Fay Davies, Eiko Nemitz, Gavin J Phillips, Carole Helfter, Chiara F Di Marco, Steven Smith, 2012, review article

Abstract: The Regents Park and Tower Environmental Experiment (REPARTEE) comprised two campaigns in London in October 2006 and October/November 2007. The experiment design involved measurements at a heavily trafficked roadside site, two urban background sites and an elevated site at 160-190 m above ground on the BT Tower, supplemented in the second campaign by Doppler lidar measurements of atmospheric vertical structure. A wide range of measurements of airborne particle physical metrics and chemical composition were made as well as measurements of a considerable range of gas phase species and the fluxes of both particulate and gas phase substances. Significant findings include (a) demonstration of the evaporation of traffic-generated nanoparticles during both horizontal and vertical atmospheric transport; (b) generation of a large base of information on the fluxes of nanoparticles, accumulation mode particles and specific chemical components of the aerosol and a range of gas phase species, as well as the elucidation of key processes and comparison with emissions inventories; (c) quantification of vertical gradients in selected aerosol and trace gas species which has demonstrated the important role of regional transport in influencing concentrations of sulphate, nitrate and secondary organic compounds within the atmosphere of London; (d) generation of new data on the atmospheric structure and turbulence above London, including the estimation of mixed layer depths; (e) provision of new data on trace gas dispersion in the urban atmosphere through the release of purposeful tracers; (f) the determination of spatial differences in aerosol particle size distributions and their interpretation in terms of sources and physico-chemical transformations; (g) studies of the nocturnal oxidation of nitrogen oxides and of the diurnal behaviour of nitrate aerosol in the urban atmosphere, and (h) new information on the chemical composition and source apportionment of particulate matter size fractions in the atmosphere of London derived both from bulk chemical analysis and aerosol mass spectrometry with two instrument types.
Keywords: megacity, trace gas, urban atmosphere, atmospheric transport, chemical composition, aerosol
Published in RUNG: 18.07.2019; Views: 3385; Downloads: 0
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