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Morphological dependencies : a dissertation
Guy Tabachnick, 2023, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: This dissertation investigates morphological dependencies: correlations between two lexically specific patterns, such as selection of inflectional affixes. Previous work has established that such correlations exist in the lexicon of morphologically rich languages (Ackerman et al., 2009; Wurzel, 1989), but has not systematically tested whether speakers productively extend these patterns to novel words. I present a series of corpus and nonce word studies—in Hungarian, Czech, and Russian—testing whether speakers vary their selection of suffixed forms of novel words based on the forms of that word that are presented to them. In all three cases, speakers vary their responses in accordance with the provided stimuli, demonstrating that they have learned and productively apply morphological dependencies from the lexicon. I present a theoretical account of morphological dependencies that can account for my experimental results, based on the sublexicon model of phonological learning (Allen & Becker, 2015; Becker & Gouskova, 2016; Gouskova et al., 2015). In this model, speakers index lexically specific behavior with diacritic features attached to underlying forms in lexical entries, and learn generalizations over sublexicons defined as words that share a feature. These generalizations are stored as constraints in phonotactic grammars for each sublexicon, enabling speakers to learn phonological and morphological dependencies predicting words that pattern together. This model provides a unified treatment of morphological dependencies and generalizations that are phonological in nature. My studies show a wide range of learned effects, not limited to those that follow an organizational principle like paradigm uniformity. The sublexicon model assumes that speakers can learn arbitrary generalizations without restrictions, giving it needed flexibility over more restrictive models which rely on notions of morphophonological naturalness.
Keywords: inflectional affixes, nonce word study, lexical productivity, morphological dependencies, diacritic features, dissertations
Published in RUNG: 04.03.2024; Views: 269; Downloads: 6
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Evidentials and interrogatives : a case study from Korean
Dong Sik Lim, 2010, doctoral dissertation

Keywords: evidentiality, origo-shift, questions, Korean, dissertations
Published in RUNG: 29.02.2024; Views: 312; Downloads: 2
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Why even ask? : on the pragmatics of questions and the semantics of answers
Elena Guerzoni, 2003, doctoral dissertation

Keywords: presupposition projection, questions, focus, negative polarity, semantics, pragmatics, dissertations
Published in RUNG: 27.02.2024; Views: 313; Downloads: 4
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Synthesis and application of transition metal phosphide nanomaterials as electrocatalysts for water splitting and chemical transformations : dissertation
Takwa Chouki, 2022, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: In this thesis, we will focus on the solvothermal synthesis of iron phosphides (FeP, Fe2P) using triphenylphosphine (TPP) as an inexpensive and stable phosphorus source. The obtained iron phosphides were applied as electrocatalysts in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation, Escherichia coli (E. coli) inactivation, nitrates reduction reaction (NO3RR) to ammonia (NH3), and as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Detailed characterizations of catalysts were carried out to investigate the correlations between the material structure and catalytic activity. The first part of the thesis gives an introduction to the topic which cover overview of literature about the use of transition metal phosphide as efficient electrocatalysts in water splitting studies, NO3RR to NH3 and DSSCs. The second part is a description of the experimental methods. The third part discusses the solvothermal synthesis of FeP and Fe2P catalysts using TPP precursor. The phase conversion of iron phosphides at elevated temperatures under reductive atmosphere was reported. Structural characterizations of the obtained materials were achieved using multiple techniques. The electrocatalytic activities of heat-treated iron phosphide films for HER were studied in acidic environment. The fourth part discusses the use of Fe2P nanoparticles (NPs) for OER. The fifth part outlines the use of Fe2P precatalyst in water treatment studies. Using a thin film of Fe2P precatalyst, RhB degradation and E. coli inactivation in the presence of in-situ generated reactive chlorine species were reported. Characterization of Fe2P electrocatalysts before and after the test was carried out using different techniques. The sixth part shows for the first time the use of FeP and Fe2P as a noble metal-free electrocatalysts for NO3RR to NH3. In this chapter we will emphasize the nitrate reaction pathways, which are highly complex and poorly understood. The seventh part demonstrates the use of FeP and Fe2P catalysts as robust and efficient counter electrodes in DSSCs.
Keywords: solvothermal synthesis, iron phosphides, electrocatalysis, HER, OER, RhB degradation, E. coli inactivation, NO3RR to NH3, DSSCs, dissertations
Published in RUNG: 29.08.2022; Views: 1817; Downloads: 96
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Exploration of yeast biodiversity potential for development of alternative biofungicides in viticulture : dissertation
Rowland Adesida, 2022, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Botrytis cinerea Pers., the fungal plant pathogen and the causal agent of gray mould diseases in grapevine, is vastly responsible for substantial economic losses in table and wine grapes production worldwide by negatively affecting plant growth and causing the reduction of grape and wine quality. The conventional approach for pathogen control has been up to date based on synthetic fungicides with good effectiveness against pathogens but a negative impact on the environment. The growing level of harmful residues in the environment and some also detected in wines have led the European Union and many winemakers to limit the application of synthetic fungicides to earlier season. However, with a high risk of disease also late in the season, the need for other solutions is clear. Consequently, more and more research is focused on finding potential alternatives in the form of effective biological control agents. Although there are several reports of yeast’s biocontrol activity, they are up to date still poorly commercialized for such purposes. As the yeasts represent an important part of the grape microflora, competing with other microorganisms (including pathogens) for nutrients and space, we decided to examine the potential of autochthonous yeasts as "green" alternatives in fighting against phytopathogens such as B. cinerea in viticulture. With this aim, we tested the biocontrol activity of 119 different indigenous yeasts belonging to 30 different species of 17 genera against filamentous fungus B. cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould or botrytis bunch rot in grape. The yeasts were screened for putative multidimensional modes of action such as antifungal volatiles (VOC), in vitro inhibition of fungal mycelial growth, competition for nutrients, hydrolytic enzyme activities, and yeast tolerance to fungicides like copper, iprodione and cyprodinil/fludioxonil combination. With a qualitative detection of the hydrolysis activity by using screening methods based on solid medium with chitin or βD-glucosides as substrates, we found that many tested yeasts were capable of producing lytic enzymes with the ability to degrade the cell wall of phytopathogenic fungi and are potentially also able to produce VOCs via hydrolysis of grape glycosides as a result of β-glucosidase presence. Furthermore, we observed the capability of tested yeast to inhibit fungal mycelia growth on plate and assimilation of a wide variety of carbon sources; however, no siderophore producers were detected. In general, the yeasts under observation were tolerant to the tested fungicides. Their fungicide resistance can indeed be regarded as a beneficial trait for potential biofungicide agent (PBA) candidates due to open possibilities of applications and combinations within low input pest management strategies in the vineyard. Finally, a field experiment in Pinot noir and Pinot gris vineyards was designed to study different combinations of optimized canopy microclimate manipulation (CMM) techniques and potential biocontrol agent (PBA) application. In experimental conditions, the ability of PBA’s to maintain appropriate population density for disease prevention was observed. In addition, the grape and wine quality parameters were analysed to observe the possible impact of implemented biocontrol yeast on final products. The biocontrol yeast Pichia guilliermondii ZIM 624 was selected and applied in experimental vineyards based on yeast testing results. We were able to detect and confirm PBA yeast’s suitable density on grapes until harvest. In the case of early defoliation for both varieties lower grape compactness was observed together with lower yield/ plant, regardless of PBA yeast/ no yeast application. Among grape basic quality parameters, the optimized techniques showed a positive effect on sugar content. Still, unexpectedly, in the treatments with biocontrol yeasts some trends toward higher acidity were noticed in Pinot gris.
Keywords: sustainable viticulture, Botrytis cinerea, gray mould, yeasts, biocontrol, canopy microclimate manipulation, grapevine metabolite, dissertations
Published in RUNG: 07.07.2022; Views: 1767; Downloads: 132
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Novel analytical approaches in quality and safety control in production of fermented beverages : dissertation
Jelena Topić, 2022, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: The exploitation of microorganisms for fermentation goes back centuries. Two types of fermentation are usually used in the winemaking process – alcoholic fermentation and malolactic fermentation. Nowadays, inoculated fermentations with the use of starter cultures are commonly used in order to produce wine with more consistent quality. However, wines can lack in flavour complexity, so scientists and the industry are constantly looking for new and improved starters that can be adapted to different types of wine. In this work we focused on the development and implementation of novel analytical methods for wine quality control. In the course of method development native yeasts and lactic acid bacteria isolates were characterized for wine starter properties. We focused on the determination of biologically active compounds that determine wine quality and safety. Yeasts can influence wine colour through their adsorption capacity and synthesis of stable colour pigments pyranoanthocyanins and lactic acid bacteria can produce biogenic amines which can have adverse detrimental health effects on sensitive consumers when they are present in wines.
Keywords: Saccharomyces yeasts, non-Saccharomyces yeasts, pyranoanthocyanins, thermal-lens spectrometry, lactic acid bacteria, biogenic amines, thin layer chromatography, dissertations
Published in RUNG: 18.02.2022; Views: 2590; Downloads: 119
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Spectroscopic investigation of oxygen vacancies in CeO[sub]2 : dissertation
Thanveer Thajudheen, 2021, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: A unique material, ceria (CeO2), which is widely applied in automobile exhaust catalysts, is functional due to presence of defects in its crystal structure. Furthermore, the structural defects dictate electrical and chemical properties of ceria. The creation of intrinsic oxygen vacancies in ceria is responsible for oxygen-ion conductivity in solid oxide fuel cells. This unfolds the keen interest in ceria defects. Using the analytical technique cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CLS) we can characterize ceria for its band gap and the defect states within the band gap. Since CLS has a high spatial resolution, high sensitivity to low concentration of defects and ability to obtain depth resolved information it is an obvious technique of choice. The first part of the thesis is an introduction to the topic and description of the experimental techniques. Importance of ceria as a multifaceted material finding applications in areas spanning from energy production and conversion to biomedical applications is detailed. CLS as a tool to understand defect-related optical properties and advancement in the CL detection systems are discussed. To study the relationship between local structure and its impact on CL emission spectra, an X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques were used. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and the Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques are summarized. The second part discusses CL emission from ceria. Initially, CL emission from reduced ceria and its dependence on oxygen vacancy concentration are presented. The origin of emission was attributed to different configurations of the oxygen vacancies and polarons. The recent F center description in ceria was adopted here. The intriguing observation of CL emission quenching as a function of oxygen vacancy concentration was explained on the basis of a relative change in population of F centers in ceria. This demonstrated the relevance of local structure for the CL emission in ceria. In order to have a better understanding of the system, La-doped ceria was proposed as a model system. A precise control over the stoichiometry helped to achieve a desired oxygen vacancy concentration. The CL emission behavior, as observed in reduced ceria, was replicated in the case of La-doped ceria and the analysis revealed that F+ centers favor CL emission whereas F0 centers are disadvantageous. The local structure investigation using EXAFS analysis of both cations Ce and La (K-Edge) showed distortion from the fluorite symmetry and corroborated the F center description of oxygen vacancies in ceria. Our results provide an experimental evidence for F center description involving oxygen vacancies and polarons.
Keywords: ceria, cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, local structure distortion, EXAFS analysis, La doped ceria, luminescence quenching, F centers, dissertations
Published in RUNG: 25.11.2021; Views: 2432; Downloads: 104
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Features of narrative language in fluent aphasia : tesi sottomessa per il titolo di Philosophiae Doctor
Sara Andreetta, 2014, doctoral dissertation

Keywords: aphasia, discourse analysis, language evaluation, dissertations
Published in RUNG: 18.11.2021; Views: 2155; Downloads: 0
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