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Reconstruction of stereoscopic CTA events using deep learning with CTLearn
Tjark Miener, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory, aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation instruments a factor of five to ten and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. Arrays of IACTs probe the very-high-energy gamma-ray sky. Their working principle consists of the simultaneous observation of air showers initiated by the interaction of very-high-energy gamma rays and cosmic rays with the atmosphere. Cherenkov photons induced by a given shower are focused onto the camera plane of the telescopes in the array, producing a multi-stereoscopic record of the event. This image contains the longitudinal development of the air shower, together with its spatial, temporal, and calorimetric information. The properties of the originating very-high-energy particle (type, energy, and incoming direction) can be inferred from those images by reconstructing the full event using machine learning techniques. In this contribution, we present a purely deep-learning driven, full-event reconstruction of simulated, stereoscopic IACT events using CTLearn. CTLearn is a package that includes modules for loading and manipulating IACT data and for running deep learning models, using pixel-wise camera data as input.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, very-high-energy gamma-rays, CTLearn
Published in RUNG: 18.09.2023; Views: 701; Downloads: 5
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Detection methods for the Cherenkov Telescope Array at very-short exposure times
Ambra Di Piano, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next generation ground-based observatory for very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy, with the deployment of tens of highly sensitive and fast-reacting Cherenkov telescopes. It will cover a wide energy range (20 GeV - 300 TeV) with unprecedented sensitivity. To maximize the scientific return, the observatory will be provided with an online software system that will perform the first analysis of scientific data in real-time. This study investigates the precision and accuracy of available science tools and analysis techniques for the short-term detection of gamma-ray sources, in terms of sky localization, detection significance and, if significant detection is achieved, a first estimation of the integral photon flux. The scope is to evaluate the feasibility of the algorithms’ implementation in the real-time analysis of CTA. In this contribution we present a general overview of the methods and some of the results for the test case of the short-term detection of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, as the VHE counterpart of a gravitational wave event.
Keywords: very-high-energy gamma-rays, Cherenkov Telescope Array, gamma-ray astronomy
Published in RUNG: 18.09.2023; Views: 683; Downloads: 6
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Sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to a dark matter signal from the Galactic centre
Christopher Eckner, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: High-energy gamma rays are promising tools to constrain or reveal the nature of dark matter, in particular Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. Being well into its pre-construction phase, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will soon probe the sky in the 20 GeV - 300 TeV energy range. Thanks to its improved energy and angular resolutions as well as significantly larger e˙ective area when compared to the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes, CTA is expected to probe heavier dark matter, with unprecedented sensitivity, reaching the thermal annihilation cross-section at 1 TeV. This talk will summarise the planned dark matter search strategies with CTA, focusing on the signal from the Galactic centre. As observed with the Fermi LAT at lower energies, this region is rather complex and CTA will be the first ground-based observatory sensitive to the large scale di˙use astrophysical emission from that region. We report on the collaboration e˙ort to study the impact of such extended astrophysical backgrounds on the dark matter search, based on Fermi-LAT data in order to guide our observational strategies, taking into account various sources of systematic uncertainty.
Keywords: high-energy gamma rays, Cherenkov Telescope Array, dark matter, galactic centre
Published in RUNG: 18.09.2023; Views: 647; Downloads: 8
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Cherenkov Telescope Array: the World's largest VHE gamma-ray observatory
Roberta Zanin, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, published scientific conference contribution (invited lecture)

Abstract: Very-High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray astroparticle physics is a relatively young field, and obser-vations over the past decade have surprisingly revealed almost two hundred VHE emitters which appear to act as cosmic particle accelerators. These sources are an important component of the Universe, influencing the evolution of stars and galaxies. At the same time, they also act as a probe of physics in the most extreme environments known - such as in supernova explosions, and around or after the merging of black holes and neutron stars. However, the existing experiments have provided exciting glimpses, but often falling short of supplying the full answer. A deeper understanding of the TeV sky requires a significant improvement in sensitivity at TeV energies, a wider energy coverage from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and a much better angular and energy resolution with respect to the currently running facilities. The next generation gamma-ray observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO), is the answer to this need. In this talk I will present this upcoming observatory from its design to the construction, and its potential science exploitation. CTAO will allow the entire astronomical community to explore a new discovery space that will likely lead to paradigm-changing breakthroughs. In particular, CTA has an unprecedented sensitivity to short (sub-minute) timescale phenomena, placing it as a key instrument in the future of multi-messenger and multi-wavelength time domain astronomy. I will conclude the talk presenting the first scientific results obtained by the LST-1, the prototype of one CTA telescope type - the Large Sized Telescope, that is currently under commission.
Keywords: Very-High Energy Gamma-rays, Cherenkov Telescope Array
Published in RUNG: 18.09.2023; Views: 585; Downloads: 6
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Low-luminosity jetted AGN as particle multi-messenger sources
Anita Reimer, Margot Boughelilba, Lukas Merten, Paolo Da Vela, Jon Paul Lundquist, Serguei Vorobiov, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The detection of cosmic gamma rays, high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays (CRs) signal the existence of environments in the Universe that allow particle acceleration to extremely high energies. These observable signatures from putative CR sources are the result of in-source acceleration of particles, their energy and time-dependent transport including interactions in an evolving environment and their escape from source, in addition to source-to-Earth propagation. Low-luminosity AGN jets constitute the most abundant persistent jet source population in the local Universe. The dominant subset of these, Fanaroff-Riley 0 (FR0) galaxies, have recently been proposed as sources contributing to the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux observed on Earth. This presentation assesses the survival, workings and multi-messenger signatures of UHECRs in low-luminosity jet environments, with focus on FR0 galaxies. For this purpose we use our recently developed, fully time-dependent CR particle and photon propagation framework which takes into account all relevant secondary production and energy loss processes, allows for an evolving source environment and efficient treatment of transport non-linearities due to the produced particles/photons being fed back into the simulation chain. Finally, we propagate UHE cosmic-ray nuclei and secondary cosmogenic photons and neutrinos from FR0 galaxies to Earth for several extragalactic magnetic field scenarios using the CRPropa3 framework, and confront the resulting energy spectra and composition on Earth with the current observational situation.
Keywords: multi-messenger astrophysics, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, very-high-energy gamma-rays
Published in RUNG: 13.09.2023; Views: 819; Downloads: 5
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Sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to TeV photon emission from the Large Magellanic Cloud
A. Acharyya, R. Adam, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: A deep survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud at ∼ 0.1−100 TeV photon energies with the Cherenkov Telescope Array is planned. We assess the detection prospects based on a model for the emission of the galaxy, comprising the four known TeV emitters, mock populations of sources, and interstellar emission on galactic scales. We also assess the detectability of 30 Doradus and SN 1987A, and the constraints that can be derived on the nature of dark matter. The survey will allow for fine spectral studies of N 157B, N 132D, LMC P3, and 30 Doradus C, and half a dozen other sources should be revealed, mainly pulsar-powered objects. The remnant from SN 1987A could be detected if it produces cosmic-ray nuclei with a flat power-law spectrum at high energies, or with a steeper index 2.3−2.4 pending a flux increase by a factor > 3−4 over ∼ 2015−2035. Large-scale interstellar emission remains mostly out of reach of the survey if its > 10 GeV spectrum has a soft photon index ∼ 2.7, but degree-scale 0.1 − 10 TeV pion-decay emission could be detected if the cosmic-ray spectrum hardens above >100 GeV. The 30 Doradus star-forming region is detectable if acceleration efficiency is on the order of 1 − 10% of the mechanical luminosity and diffusion is suppressed by two orders of magnitude within < 100 pc. Finally, the survey could probe the canonical velocity-averaged cross section for self-annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles for cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White profiles.
Keywords: very-high energy (VHE) gamma-rays, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, Large Magellanic Cloud, pulsar wind nebulas, galaxiesstar-forming regions, cosmic rays, dark matter
Published in RUNG: 02.06.2023; Views: 1219; Downloads: 1
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Sensitivity of CTA to gamma-ray emission from the Perseus galaxy cluster
Judit Pérez Romero, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: In these proceedings we summarize the current status of the study of the sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to detect diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Perseus galaxy cluster. Gamma-ray emission is expected in galaxy clusters both from interactions of cosmic rays (CR) with the intra-cluster medium, or as a product of annihilation or decay of dark matter (DM) particles in case they are weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). The observation of Perseus constitutes one of the Key Science Projects to be carried out by the CTA Consortium. In this contribution, we focus on the DM-induced component of the flux. OurDMmodelling includes the substructures we expect in the main halo which will boost the annihilation signal significantly. We adopt an ON/OFF observation strategy and simulate the expected gamma-ray signals. Finally we compute the expected CTA sensitivity using a likelihood maximization analysis including the most recent CTA instrument response functions. In absence of signal, we show that CTA will allow us to provide stringent and competitive constraints on TeV DM, especially for the case of DM decay.
Keywords: dark matter, gamma-ray astronomy, galaxy clusters, cosmic rays and astroparticles
Published in RUNG: 27.01.2023; Views: 1138; Downloads: 15
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Spatial extension of dark subhalos as seen by Fermi-LAT and the implications for WIMP constraints
Javier Coronado-Blázquez, Miguel Sánchez-Conde, Judit Pérez Romero, Alejandra Aguirre-Santaella, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Spatial extension has been hailed as a “smoking gun” in the gamma-ray search of dark galactic subhalos, which would appear as unidentified sources for gamma-ray telescopes. In this work, we study the sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT to extended subhalos using simulated data based on a realistic sky model. We simulate spatial templates for a set of representative subhalos, whose parameters were derived from our previous work with N-body cosmological simulation data. We find that detecting an extended subhalo and finding an unequivocal signal of angular extension requires, respectively, a flux 2 to 10 times larger than in the case of a pointlike source. By studying a large grid of models, where parameters such as the WIMP mass, annihilation channel, or subhalo model are varied significantly, we obtain the response of the LAT as a function of the product of annihilation cross-section times the J-factor. Indeed, we show that spatial extension can be used as an additional “filter” to reject subhalos candidates among the pool of unidentified LAT sources, as well as a smoking gun for positive identification. For instance, typical angular extensions of a few tenths of a degree are expected for the considered scenarios. Finally, we also study the impact of the obtained LAT sensitivity to such extended subhalos on the achievable dark matter constraints, which are a few times less constraining than comparable point-source limits.
Keywords: dark matter, cosmic rays and astroparticles, gamma-ray astronomy, particle astrophysics, particle dark matter
Published in RUNG: 26.01.2023; Views: 1454; Downloads: 0
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Studies of cosmic rays in our Galaxy with Cherenkov Telescope Array : diploma seminar
Zoja Rokavec, 2022, research project (high school)

Keywords: cosmic rays, cosmic PeVatrons, Cherenkov Telescope Array, very-high-energy gamma-rays
Published in RUNG: 15.06.2022; Views: 1428; Downloads: 0
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