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Science with the Global Cosmic-ray Observatory (GCOS)
Rafael Alves Batista, M. Ahlers, Pedro Assis, Markus Gottfried Battisti, J. A. Bellido, S. Bhatnagar, K. Bismark, Teresa Bister, Martina Boháčová, Serguei Vorobiov, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Global Cosmic-ray Observatory (GCOS) is a proposed large-scale observatory for studying ultra-high-energy cosmic particles, including ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), photons, and neutrinos. Its primary goal is to characterise the properties of the highest-energy particles in Nature with unprecedented accuracy, and to identify their elusive sources. With an aperture at least a ten-fold larger than existing observatories, this next-generation facility should start operating after 2030, when present-day detectors will gradually cease their activities. Here we briefly review the scientific case motivating GCOS. We present the status of the project, preliminary ideas for its design, and some estimates of its capabilities.
Keywords: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, UHE photons, UHE neutrinos, the Global Cosmic-ray Observatory project
Published in RUNG: 27.09.2023; Views: 693; Downloads: 5
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GCOS - The Global Cosmic Ray Observatory
Joerg R. Hoerandel, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, 2021, published scientific conference contribution (invited lecture)

Abstract: Nature is providing particles with energies exceeding 100 EeV. Their existence imposes immediate questions: Are they ordinary particles, accelerated in extreme astrophysical environments, or are they annihilation or decay products of super-heavy dark matter or other exotic objects? If the particles are accelerated in extreme astrophysical environments, are their sources related to those of high-energy neutrinos, gamma rays, and/or gravitational waves, such as the recently observed mergers of compact objects? The particles can also be used to study physics processes at extreme energies; is Lorentz invariance still valid? Are the particles interacting according to the Standard Model or are there new physics processes? The particles can be used to study hadronic interactions (QCD) in the kinematic forward direction; what is the cross section of protons at center-of-mass energies sqrt(s) > 100 TeV? These questions are addressed at present by installations like the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory. After the year 2030, a next-generation observatory will be needed to study the physics and properties of the highest-energy particles in Nature, building on the knowledge harvested from the existing observatories. It should have an aperture at least an order of magnitude bigger than the existing observatories. Recently, more than 200 scientists from around the world came together to discuss the future of the field of multi-messenger astroparticle physics beyond the year 2030. Ideas have been discussed towards the physics case and possible scenarios for detection concepts of the Global Cosmic Ray Observatory - GCOS. A synopsis of the key results discussed during the brainstorming workshop will be presented.
Keywords: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, Global Cosmic Ray Observatory (GCOS) project
Published in RUNG: 13.09.2023; Views: 439; Downloads: 6
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Evolution of organic aerosols in the atmosphere
Jose L. Jimenez, M. R. Canagaratna, N. M. Donahue, A. S. H. Prevot, Q. Zhang, J. H. Kroll, P. F. DeCarlo, J. David Allan, H. Coe, Katja Džepina, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework describing the atmospheric evolution of OA that is constrained by high–time-resolution measurements of its composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), with concentrations comparable to those of sulfate aerosol throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Our model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in both the atmosphere and laboratory: It can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.
Keywords: secondary organic aerosol, source apportionment, aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, global field measurements, laboratory experiments
Published in RUNG: 11.04.2021; Views: 2077; Downloads: 0
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Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) : a global budget and source attribution
E. V. Fischer, D. J. Jacob, R. M. Yantosca, M. P. Sulprizio, D. B. Millet, Jiandong Mao, F. Paulot, H. B. Singh, A. Roiger, Katja Džepina, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is the principal tropospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2). PAN enables the transport and release of NOx to the remote troposphere with major implications for the global distributions of ozone and OH, the main tropospheric oxidants. Simulation of PAN is a challenge for global models because of the dependence of PAN on vertical transport as well as complex and uncertain NMVOC sources and chemistry. Here we use an improved representation of NMVOCs in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and show that it can simulate PAN observations from aircraft campaigns worldwide. The immediate carbonyl precursors for PAN formation include acetaldehyde (44 % of the global source), methylglyoxal (30 %), acetone (7 %), and a suite of other isoprene and terpene oxidation products (19 %). A diversity of NMVOC emissions is responsible for PAN formation globally including isoprene (37 %) and alkanes (14 %). Anthropogenic sources are dominant in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere outside the growing season. Open fires appear to play little role except at high northern latitudes in spring, although results are very sensitive to plume chemistry and plume rise. Lightning NOx is the dominant contributor to the observed PAN maximum in the free troposphere over the South Atlantic.
Keywords: peroxyacetyl nitrate, non-methane volatile organic compounds, global 3-D chemical transport model, GEOS-chem
Published in RUNG: 11.04.2021; Views: 2185; Downloads: 0
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An Artist Abroad : The influence of a change in surroundings on artistic creativity
Valerija Zabret, 2016, master's thesis

Abstract: The motivation for this thesis was author’s experience as a traveling artists and questioning how experiences abroad influenced her artistic evolution. Nowadays, in the years of globalization and cross-border collaborations, it has become very common for artists to make international connections in order to seek inspiration, funds, connections, exhibition spaces, platforms on which to show their work, studios, workshops, and to establish an international career. The idea of this thesis is to explore the phenomena of traveling artists through literature and analysis of the author’s personal experience and development as an artist in order to identify whether travel is a good practice that should be advised for emerging (or established) artists in order to evolve in their careers. This thesis, “The Influence of a Change in Surroundings on Artistic Creativity,” questions how traveling influences artists and their creativity. It offers a historically overview of the subject and presents contemporary ways and opportunities for artists to travel and work in international environments. In the second part of this thesis, the author presents poetical videos, the “An Artist Abroad – Video Poetry Series,” which were made during the research and through which the author expresses her feelings and observation of her new surroundings. Very personal and poetic work shows the progress and development in the author’s artistic practice, and it shows how new surroundings influenced her creative and production processes.
Keywords: art, artist, artist abroad, artist residency, traveling artist, mobility, surroundings, change, creativity, influence, production, culture, global, contemporary art, video, poetry, series
Published in RUNG: 25.02.2016; Views: 6471; Downloads: 158
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