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11.
Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Laura Collica, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The muon content of extensive air showers is an observable sensitive to the primary composition and to the hadronic interaction properties. We present here different methods which allow us to estimate the muon number at the ground level and the muon production depth by exploiting the measurement of the longitudinal, lateral and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 10[sup]19 eV (E[inf]CM ∼ 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries), are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic interaction models with different primary masses and suggest a deficit in the muon content at the ground predicted by simulations. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses water-Cherenkov detectors to measure particle densities at the ground and therefore has a good sensitivity to the muon content of air showers. Moreover, due to its hybrid design, the combination of muon measurements with other independent mass composition analyses such as Xmax provides additional constraints on hadronic interaction models.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra- high energy cosmic rays, muons, mass composition, hadronic...
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, muons, mass composition, hadronic interactions
Published: 03.03.2016; Views: 3300; Downloads: 181
.pdf Fulltext (298,46 KB)

12.
Combined fit of spectrum and composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Andrea Di Matteo, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: We present a combined fit of both flux and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The fit has been performed for energies above 5 × 10[sup]18 eV, i.e. the region of the all-particle spectrum above the so-called “ankle” feature. A simple astrophysical model consisting of identical sources has been adopted, where nuclei are injected with a rigidity dependent mechanism and the sources are uniformly distributed in a comoving volume. The fit results suggest a source model characterized by relatively low maximum injection energies and hard spectral indices. The impact of different sources of systematic uncertainties in the above result is discussed.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...fit of both flux and composition of ultra- high energy cosmic rays as measured by the...
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, energy spectrum, elemental composition, combined data fit
Published: 03.03.2016; Views: 3115; Downloads: 198
.pdf Fulltext (704,98 KB)

13.
Upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory (AugerPrime)
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Ralph Engel, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The data collected with the Pierre Auger Observatory have led to a number of surprising discoveries. While a strong suppression of the particle flux at the highest energies has been established unambiguously, the dominant physics processes related to this suppression could not be identified. Within the energy range covered by fluorescence detector observations with sufficient statistics, an unexpected change of the depth of maximum distribution is found. Using LHC-tuned interaction models these observations can be understood as a correlated change of the fluxes of different mass groups. On the other hand, they could also indicate a change of hadronic interactions above the energy of the ankle. Complementing the water Cherenkov detectors of the surface array with scintillator detectors will, mainly through the determination of the muonic shower component, extend the composition sensitivity of the Auger Observatory into the flux suppression region. The upgrade of the Auger Observatory will allow us to estimate the primary mass of the highest energy cosmic rays on a shower-by-shower basis. In addition to measuring the mass composition the upgrade will open the possibility to search for light primaries at the highest energies, to perform composition-selected anisotropy studies, and to search for new phenomena including unexpected changes of hadronic interactions. After introducing the physics motivation for upgrading the Auger Observatory the planned detector upgrade is presented. In the second part of the contribution the expected performance and improved physics sensitivity of the upgraded Auger Observatory are discussed.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra- high energy cosmic rays, elemental composition sensitivity, Auger upgrade (AugerPr...
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, elemental composition sensitivity, Auger upgrade (AugerPrime), muonic shower component, scintillator detectors
Published: 03.03.2016; Views: 2990; Downloads: 184
.pdf Fulltext (659,02 KB)

14.
AugerNext: R&D studies at the Pierre Auger Observatory for a next generation ground-based ultra-high energy cosmic-ray experiment
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Andreas Haungs, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The findings so far of the Pierre Auger Observatory and those of the Telescope Array define some requirements for a possible next generation global cosmic ray observatory: it needs to be considerably increased in size, it needs enhanced sensitivity to composition, and it has to cover the full sky. At the Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerNext aims to conduct some innovative initial research studies on a design of a sophisticated hybrid detector fulfilling these demands. Within a European supported ASPERA/APPEC (Astroparticle Physics European Consortium) project for the years 2011-2014, such R&D studies primarily focused on the following areas: i) consolidation of the detection of cosmic rays using MHz radio antennas; ii) proof- of-principle of cosmic ray microwave detection; iii) test of the large-scale application of new generation photo sensors; iv) generalization of data communication techniques; and v) development of new schemes for muon detection with surface arrays. The AugerNext Consortium consists of 14 principal investigators from 9 countries. This contribution summarizes some achievements of the R&D studies within the AugerNext project.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic-ray experiments, Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, AugerNext research and development study
Published: 03.03.2016; Views: 3227; Downloads: 163
.pdf Fulltext (594,23 KB)

15.
Search for a correlation between the UHECRs measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array and the neutrino candidate events from IceCube
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Asen Christov, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: We have conducted three searches for correlations between ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected by the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory, and high-energy neutrino candidate events from IceCube. Two cross-correlation analyses with UHECRs are done: one with 39 cascades from the IceCube ‘high-energy starting events’ sample and the other with 16 high-energy ‘track events’. The angular separation between the arrival directions of neutrinos and UHECRs is scanned over. The same events are also used in a separate search using a maximum likelihood approach, after the neutrino arrival directions are stacked. To estimate the significance we assume UHECR magnetic deflections to be inversely proportional to their energy, with values 3◦, 6◦ and 9◦ at 100 EeV to allow for the uncertainties on the magnetic field strength and UHECR charge. A similar analysis is performed on stacked UHECR arrival directions and the IceCube sample of through-going muon track events which were optimized for neutrino point- source searches.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...have conducted three searches for correlations between ultra- high energy cosmic rays detected by the Telescope...
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, high-energy neutrinos, IceCube, correlation search
Published: 08.03.2016; Views: 3474; Downloads: 151
.pdf Fulltext (1,11 MB)

16.
Report of the Working Group on the Composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Michael Unger, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The atmospheric depth, Xmax, at which the particle number of an air shower reaches its maximum is a good indicator for the mass of the primary particle. We present a comparison of the energy evolution of the mean of Xmax as measured by the Telescope Array and c Collaborations. After accounting for the different resolutions, acceptances and analysis strategies of the two experiments, the two results are found to be in good agreement within systematic uncertainties.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays, elemental composition, extensive air showers, the atmospheric depth of the air shower maximum
Published: 08.03.2016; Views: 3225; Downloads: 199
.pdf Fulltext (329,86 KB)

17.
Large-Scale Distribution of Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array above 10[sup]19 eV
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Olivier Deligny, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The large-scale distribution of arrival directions of high-energy cosmic rays is a key observable in attempts to understanding their origin. The dipole and quadrupole moments are of special interest in revealing potential anisotropies. An unambiguous measurement of these moments as well as of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array above 10[sup]19 eV has been performed. Thanks to the full-sky coverage, the measurement of the dipole moment reported in this study does not rely on any assumption on the underlying flux of cosmic rays. As well, the resolution on the quadrupole and higher order moments is the best ever obtained. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows a series of anisotropy searches to be performed, and in particular to report on the first angular power spectrum of cosmic rays. This allows a comprehensive description of the angular distribution of cosmic rays above 10[sup]19 eV.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...The large-scale distribution of arrival directions of high-energy cosmic rays is a key observable in...
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, high-energy cosmic rays, large-scale anisotropies, angular power spectrum
Published: 08.03.2016; Views: 3108; Downloads: 153
.pdf Fulltext (462,61 KB)

18.
Initial results of a direct comparison between the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, R. Takeishi, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) in Mendoza, Argentina and the Telescope Array (TA) in Utah, USA aim at unraveling the origin and nature of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). At present, there appear to be subtle differences between Auger and TA results and interpretations. Joint working groups have been established and have already reported preliminary findings. From an experimental standpoint, the Surface Detectors (SD) of both experiments make use of different detection processes not equally sensitive to the components of the extensive air showers making it to the ground. In particular, the muonic component of the shower measured at ground level can be traced back to the primary composition, which is critical for understanding the origin of UHECRs. In order to make direct comparisons between the SD detection techniques used by Auger and TA, a joint SD experimental research program is being developed. In the first phase, two Auger SD stations were deployed at the TA Central Laser Facility to compare station-level responses. This paper concentrates on the results obtained with the first Auger SD station (an “Auger North” design), which has been operating since October 2014. The second Auger SD station, identical to the ones being operated at Auger in Argentina (an “Auger South” design), was just deployed in June 2015. The second phase of this research program will be to co-locate six Auger North SD stations with TA stations in the field to compare event-level responses.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...at unraveling the origin and nature of Ultra- High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). At present, there appear...
Keywords: Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, extensive air showers, secondary cosmic rays, muonic shower component, surface detectors
Published: 08.03.2016; Views: 3249; Downloads: 153
.pdf Fulltext (1,42 MB)

19.
Simulating Cherenkov Telescope Array observation of RX J1713.7-3946
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Samo Stanič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, T. Nakamori, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), supernova remnants, very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, RX J1713.7–3946, Monte Carlo simulations...
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), supernova remnants, very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, RX J1713.7–3946, Monte Carlo simulations
Published: 11.03.2016; Views: 3510; Downloads: 188
.pdf Fulltext (190,15 KB)

20.
Creating a high-resolution picture of Cygnus with the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Samo Stanič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Amanda Weinstein, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), very-high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, star-forming regions, the Cygnus region, observati...
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), very-high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, star-forming regions, the Cygnus region, observational strategy optimization
Published: 11.03.2016; Views: 3341; Downloads: 221
.pdf Fulltext (585,14 KB)

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