Bora flow characteristics in a complex valley environmentMarija Bervida
, Samo Stanič
, Griša Močnik
, Longlong Wang
, Klemen Bergant
, Xiaoquan Song
, 2021, original scientific article
Abstract: This paper complements the existing studies of Bora flow properties in the Vipava valley with the study of Bora turbulence in a lower region of the troposphere. The turbulence characteristics of Bora flow were derived from high resolution Doppler wind lidar measurements during eight Bora wind episodes that occurred in November and December 2019. Based on the vertical profiles of wind velocity, from 80 to 180 m above the valley floor, the turbulence intensity related to all three spatial directions and the along-wind integral length scales related to three velocity components were evaluated and compared to the approximations given in international standards. The resulting turbulence characteristics of Bora flow in a deep mountain valley exhibited interesting behaviour, differing from the one expected and suggested by standards. The intensity of turbulence during Bora episodes was found to be quite strong, especially regarding the expected values for that particular category of terrain. The specific relationship between along-wind, lateral and vertical intensity was evaluated as well. The scales of turbulence in the along-wind direction were found to vary widely between different Bora episodes and were rather different from the approximations given by standards, with the most significant deviations observed for the along-wind length scale of the vertical velocity component. Finally, the periodicity of flow structures above the valley was assessed, yielding a wide range of possible periods between 1 and 10 min, thus confirming some of the previous observations from the studies of Bora in the Vipava valley.
Keywords: doppler wind lidar, Bora wind, turbulence intensity, complex terrain, turbulence integral length scale
Published in RUNG: 05.11.2021; Views: 1853; Downloads: 42
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Near-Ground Profile of Bora Wind Speed at Razdrto, SloveniaMarija Bervida
, Samo Stanič
, Klemen Bergant
, Benedikt Strajnar
, 2019, original scientific article
Abstract: Southwest Slovenia is a region well-known for frequent episodes of strong and gusty Bora wind, which may damage structures, affect traffic, and poses threats to human safety in general. With the increased availability of computational power, the interest in high resolution modeling of Bora on local scales is growing. To model it adequately, the flow characteristics of Bora should be experimentally investigated and parameterized. This study presents the analysis of wind speed vertical profiles at Razdrto, Slovenia, a location strongly exposed to Bora during six Bora episodes of different duration, appearing between April 2010 and May 2011. The empirical power law and the logarithmic law for Bora wind, commonly used for the description of neutrally stratified atmosphere, were evaluated for 10-min averaged wind speed data measured at four different heights. Power law and logarithmic law wind speed profiles, which are commonly used in high resolution computational models, were found to approximate well the measured data. The obtained power law coefficient and logarithmic law parameters, which are for modeling purposes commonly taken to be constant for a specific site, were found to vary significantly between different Bora episodes, most notably due to different wind direction over complex terrain. To increase modeling precision, the effects of local topography on wind profile parameters needs to be experimentally assessed and implemented.
Keywords: Bora wind, logarithmic law, power law, roughness length, wind profile
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2019; Views: 3307; Downloads: 108
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Regional biodiversity and seasonal dynamics of the bacterial communities in karstic springs of SloveniaMaja Opalički Slabe
, 2019, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: Information on groundwater’s natural bacterial communities is important for evaluating pristine groundwater’s quality, as environmental changes potentially lead to alterations in bacterial community structures. In four seasons, 15 hypothetically pristine springs across five karst eco-regions in Slovenia (Central Europe) were analysed during their low discharge, and their basic physical and chemical parameters were recorded. The diversity of bacterial community structures was assessed with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting method. Total cell counts as bacterial abundance and electron transport system activity as bacterial respiratory activity were used for quantitative evaluation of bacterial communities. To detect anthropogenic pollution, spring water was tested by the cultivation of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Results indicate distinct regional differences in environmental parameters, bacterial respiratory activity, presence of coliforms and E. coli, bacterial abundances, and qualitative bacterial community structures, but there were no regional differences in the numbers of operational taxonomic units and biodiversity indices (Shannon-Wiener’s and Simpson’s diversity index, Buzas and Gibson’s evenness). The analysis of seasonal environmental parameters showed significant differences in dissolved organic carbon and pH, and also significant changes in bacterial respiratory activity and abundances, as well as differences in bacterial community structures, the numbers of operational taxonomic units, and biodiversity indices. No seasonal variations were shown for coliforms and E. coli.
Despite seasonal oscillations, regional differences prevailed among five karst eco-regions and indicate a significant influence on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of groundwater bacterial community structures. The study confirmed both regional and seasonal differences in groundwater bacterial community structures, which should be included in further sustainable management plans of the aquifers.
Keywords: karst springs, bacterial community structure (BCS), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), total cell counts (TCC), electron transport system activity (ETSA)
Published in RUNG: 26.06.2019; Views: 3637; Downloads: 183
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Simulation Of Gas Focused Liquid JetsRizwan Zahoor
, 2018, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: The main aim of dissertation is to develop an experimentally verified computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of micron-sized liquid jet, produced by an injection molded Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN). In these nozzles, liquid jets are efficiently orientedly transporting mass and momentum. They are produced by intelligently projecting hydrodynamic focusing effect from a high-speed stream of a co-flowing lower density and lower viscosity gas on a stream of liquid from a feeding capillary. Liquid micro-jets are used for delivery of protein crystal samples in a hard X-ray beam in serial femtosecond crystallography experiments. The diffraction patterns of crystals are collected just before their destruction. The samples are hard to crystallize and very precious, so a thorough knowledge of the jet used in delivering them is required. The jet characteristics are analyzed as a function of operating parameters, geometry and material properties.
The physical model is described by mixture formulation and Navier-Stokes equations for transient, Newtonian, two-phase, compressible flow. Multiphase flow problem is solved with finite volume method (FVM), where fluid-fluid interface tracking is obtained with volume of fluid (VOF). The implementation of FVM-VOF CFD model is available in open source codes OpenFOAM and Gerris. They are validated by performing a series of standard interface advection and multiphase flow test cases. Both open source codes are compared for their abilities in solving GDVN flow problem. Due to the compressible nature of the focusing gas flow, OpenFOAM was chosen for GDVN simulations, since Gerris has no compressible flow option.
Constant effective material properties are used in the phases together with ideal gas density constitutive relation. A mixture model of the two-phase system is solved in axisymmetry. The discretization of the nozzle and chamber system uses approximately 300 000 finite volumes. Mesh independent results are obtained with the finite volumes of the size 0.25 µm in the vicinity of the jet and drops. The simulations are compared with experimental results according to the jet thickness and length for distilled water jet and helium focusing gas, discharging into low-pressure environment of 150 Pa. Reynolds numbers of the liquid and gas are in the range 413-3828 and 17-1222, respectively and Weber number in the range 3-353. A reasonably good agreement with experimental and scaling results is found for the range of nozzle operating parameters never tackled before.
Subsequently, a numerical study of effects of nozzle geometry on stability, shape and flow characteristics of micron-sized liquid jets is performed. The jet characteristics are described as a function of (i) capillary-to-orifice distance, (ii) nozzle outlet orifice diameter and (iii) liquid feeding capillary angle. The study is performed for two sets of liquid flow rates while keeping the gas flow rate unchanged. It is observed that for each value of capillary-to-orifice distance and nozzle outlet diameter, there exists a minimum liquid flow rate below which the jet stability cannot be achieved. It is found that the changes in the nozzle outlet diameter have the biggest influence on the jet diameter, length and velocity, while the liquid capillary angle has no observable effect on the jet characteristic. Change in capillary-to-orifice distance does not affect the flow field around micro jet, so the jet stability and shape is found to be affected by the way liquid-gas interacts near meniscus.
The same numerical model is used to additionally analyze the jet performance under the influence of Argon, Carbon dioxide and Nitrogen focusing gases. The study shows that the helium gas at the same mass flow rate provides twice the length of the jet compared to other gases. The jet focused with helium is also much thinner, faster and interestingly shows no considerable temperature drop at the nozzle outlet.
This work for the first time discuss the computational model of an injection molded micron-sized nozzle and produces valuable information for their design.
Keywords: Microfluidics, gas dynamic virtual nozzle, flow focusing, micro-jet, convective instability, absolute instability, compressible multiphase flows, dripping, spurting, jetting, jet thickness, jet length, computational fluid dynamics, finite volume method, volume of fluid method
Published in RUNG: 27.03.2018; Views: 6205; Downloads: 170
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