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1.
The UHECR-FR0 radio galaxy connection : a multi-messenger study of energy spectra/composition emission and intergalactic magnetic field propagation
Jon Paul Lundquist, Lukas Merten, Serguei Vorobiov, Margot Boughelilba, Anita Reimer, Paolo Da Vela, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Giacomo Bonnoli, Chiara Righi, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: This study investigates low luminosity Fanaroff-Riley Type 0 (FR0) radio galaxies as a potentially significant source of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). Due to their much higher prevalence in the local universe compared to more powerful radio galaxies (about five times more than FR-1s), FR0s may provide a substantial fraction of the total UHECR energy density. To determine the nucleon composition and energy spectrum of UHECRs emitted by FR0 sources, simulation results from CRPropa3 are fit to Pierre Auger Observatory data. The resulting emission spectral indices, rigidity cutoffs, and nucleon fractions are compared to recent Auger results. The FR0 simulations include the approximately isotropic distribution of FR0 galaxies and various intergalactic magnetic field configurations (including random and structured fields) and predict the fluxes of secondary photons and neutrinos produced during UHECR propagation through cosmic photon backgrounds. This comprehensive simulation allows for investigating the properties of the FR0 sources using observational multi-messenger data.
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, UHECR propagation, CRPropa, active galactic nuclei, jetted AGN, FR0 radio galaxies, Pierre Auger Observatory, UHECR energy spectrum
Published in RUNG: 24.08.2023; Views: 913; Downloads: 4
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2.
Efficient modeling of heavy cosmic rays propagation in evolving astrophysical environments
Lukas Merten, Paolo Da Vela, Anita Reimer, Jon Paul Lundquist, Margot Boughelilba, Serguei Vorobiov, J. Becker Tjus, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: We present a new energy transport code that models the time dependent and non-linear evolution of spectra of cosmic-ray nuclei, their secondaries, and photon target fields. The software can inject an arbitrary chemical composition including heavy elements up to iron nuclei. Energy losses and secondary production due to interactions of cosmic ray nuclei, secondary mesons, leptons, or gamma-rays with a target photon field are available for all relevant processes, e.g., photo-meson production, photo disintegration, synchrotron radiation, Inverse Compton scattering, and more. The resulting x-ray fluxes can be fed back into the simulation chain to correct the initial photon targets, resulting in a non-linear treatment of the energy transport. The modular structure of the code facilitates simple extension of interaction or target field models. We will show how the software can be used to improve predictions of observables in various astrophysical sources such as jetted active galactic nuclei (AGN). Since the software can model the propagation of heavy ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays inside the source it can precisely predict the chemical composition at the source. This will also refine predictions of neutrino emissions –– they strongly depend on the chemical composition. This helps in the future to optimize the selection and analyses of data from the IceCube neutrino observatory with the aim to enhance the sensitivity of IceCube and reduce the number of trial factors.
Keywords: cosmic rays, low-luminosity jetted AGNCR energy transport, CR interactions
Published in RUNG: 24.08.2023; Views: 862; Downloads: 4
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3.
Spine-sheath jet model for low-luminosity AGNs
Margot Boughelilba, Anita Reimer, Lukas Merten, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: In several jetted AGNs, structured jets have been observed. In particular spine-sheath configurations where the jet is radially divided into two or more zones of different flow velocities. We present a model based on the particle and radiation transport code CR-ENTREES. Here, interaction rates and secondary particle and photon yields are pre-calculated by Monte Carlo event generators or semi-analytical approximations. These are then used to create transition matrices, that describe how each particle spectrum evolves with time. This code allows for arbitrary injection of primary particles, and the possibility to choose which interaction to include (photo-meson production, Bethe-Heitler pair-production, inverse-Compton scattering, �-� pair production, decay of all unstable particles, synchrotron radiation — from electrons, protons, and all relevant secondaries before their respective decays — and particle escape). In addition to the particle and radiation interactions taking place in each homogeneous zone, we implement the feedback between the two zones having different bulk velocities. The main mechanism at play when particles cross the boundary between the two zones is shear acceleration. We follow a microscopic description of this acceleration process to create a corresponding transition matrix and include it in our numerical setup. Furthermore, each zone’s radiation field can be used as an external target photon field for the other zone’s particle interactions. We present here the first results of the effect of a two-zone spine-sheath jet, by applying this model to typical low-luminosity AGNs.
Keywords: active galactic nuclei, low-luminosity jetted AGN, spine-sheath jet structure
Published in RUNG: 24.08.2023; Views: 829; Downloads: 4
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4.
FR-0 jetted active galaxies : extending the zoo of candidate sites for UHECR acceleration
Lukas Merten, Margot Boughelilba, Anita Reimer, Paolo Da Vela, Serguei Vorobiov, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Giacomo Bonnoli, Jon Paul Lundquist, Chiara Righi, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Fanaroff-Riley (FR) 0 radio galaxies form a low-luminosity extension to the well-established ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) candidate accelerators FR-1 and FR-2 galaxies. Their much higher number density — up to a factor five times more numerous than FR-1 with z ≤ 0.05 — makes them good candidate sources for an isotropic contribution to the observed UHECR flux. Here, the acceleration and survival of UHECR in prevailing conditions of the FR-0 environment are discussed. First, an average spectral energy distribution (SED) is compiled based on the FR0CAT. These photon fields, composed of a jet and a host galaxy component, form a minimal target photon field for the UHECR, which will suffer from electromagnetic pair production, photo-disintegration, photo-meson production losses, and synchrotron radiation. The two most promising acceleration scenarios based on Fermi-I order and gradual shear acceleration are discussed as well as different escape scenarios. When an efficient acceleration mechanism precedes gradual shear acceleration, e.g., Fermi-I orothers, FR-0 galaxies are likely UHECR accelerators. Gradual shear acceleration requires a jet Lorentz factor of Gamma>1.6, to be faster than the corresponding escape. In less optimistic models, a contribution to the cosmic-ray flux between the knee and ankle is expected to be relatively independent of the realized turbulence and acceleration.
Keywords: jetted active galaxies, FR-0 radiogalaxies, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, cosmic ray acceleration, cosmic ray energy losses
Published in RUNG: 16.08.2021; Views: 2136; Downloads: 3
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5.
Extrapolating FR-0 radio galaxy source properties from propagation of multi-messenger ultra-high energy cosmic rays
Jon Paul Lundquist, Lukas Merten, Serguei Vorobiov, Margot Boughelilba, Anita Reimer, Paolo Da Vela, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Giacomo Bonnoli, Chiara Righi, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Recently, it has been shown that relatively low luminosity Fanaroff-Riley type 0 (FR-0) radio galaxies are a good candidate source class for a predominant fraction of cosmic rays (CR) accelerated to ultra-high energies (UHE, E>10[sup]18 eV). FR-0s can potentially provide a significant fraction of the UHECR energy density as they are much more numerous in the local universe than more energetic radio galaxies such as FR-1s or FR-2s (up to a factor of ∼5 with z≤0.05 compared to FR-1s). In the present work, UHECR mass composition and energy spectra at the FR-0 sources are estimated by fitting simulation results to the published Pierre Auger Observatory data. This fitting is done using a simulated isotropic sky distribution extrapolated from the measured FR-0 galaxy properties and propagating CRs in plausible extragalactic magnetic field configurations using the CRPropa3 framework. In addition, we present estimates of the fluxes of secondary photons and neutrinos created in UHECR interactions with cosmic photon backgrounds during CR propagation. With this approach, we aim to investigate the properties of the sources with the help of observational multi-messenger data.
Keywords: jetted active galaxies, FR-0 radiogalaxies, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, extragalactic magnetic fields, UHECR propagation, UHECR interactions, cosmogenic photons, cosmogenic neutrinos
Published in RUNG: 16.08.2021; Views: 2081; Downloads: 3
.pdf Full text (2,04 MB)

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