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1.
MINOT: Modeling the intracluster medium (non-)thermal content and observable prediction tools
Rémi Adam, Hazal Gosku, A. Leingärtner-Goth, Steffano Ettori, R. Gnatyk, B. Hnatyk, Moritz Hütten, Judit Pérez Romero, Miguel Sánchez-Conde, Olga Sergijenko, original scientific article

Abstract: In the past decade, the observations of diffuse radio synchrotron emission toward galaxy clusters revealed cosmic-ray (CR) electrons and magnetic fields on megaparsec scales. However, their origin remains poorly understood to date, and several models have been discussed in the literature. CR protons are also expected to accumulate during the formation of clusters and probably contribute to the production of these high-energy electrons. In order to understand the physics of CRs in clusters, combining of observations at various wavelengths is particularly relevant. The exploitation of such data requires using a self-consistent approach including both the thermal and the nonthermal components, so that it is capable of predicting observables associated with the multiwavelength probes at play, in particular in the radio, millimeter, X-ray, and γ-ray bands. We develop and describe such a self-consistent modeling framework, called MINOT (modeling the intracluster medium (non-)thermal content and observable prediction tools) and make this tool available to the community. MINOT models the intracluster diffuse components of a cluster (thermal and nonthermal) as spherically symmetric. It therefore focuses on CRs associated with radio halos. The spectral properties of the cluster CRs are also modeled using various possible approaches. All the thermodynamic properties of a cluster can be computed self-consistently, and the particle physics interactions at play are processed using a framework based on the Naima software. The multiwavelength observables (spectra, profiles, flux, and images) are computed based on the relevant physical process, according to the cluster location (sky and redshift), and based on the sampling defined by the user. With a standard personal computer, the computing time for most cases is far shorter than one second and it can reach about one second for the most complex models. This makes MINOT suitable for instance for Monte Carlo analyses. We describe the implementation of MINOT and how to use it. We also discuss the different assumptions and approximations that are involved and provide various examples regarding the production of output products at different wavelengths. As an illustration, we model the clusters Abell 1795, Abell 2142, and Abell 2255 and compare the MINOT predictions to literature data. While MINOT was originally build to simulate and model data in the γ-ray band, it can be used to model the cluster thermal and nonthermal physical processes for a wide variety of datasets in the radio, millimeter, X-ray, and γ-ray bands, as well as the neutrino emission.
Keywords: galaxy clusters, intracluster medium, cosmic rays, radiation mechanisms, numerical methods
Published in RUNG: 27.01.2023; Views: 821; Downloads: 0
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2.
Scrutinizing FR 0 radio galaxies as ultra-high-energy cosmic ray source candidates
Lukas Merten, Margot Boughelilba, Anita Reimer, Paolo Da Vela, Serguei Vorobiov, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Giacomo Bonnoli, Jon Paul Lundquist, Chiara Righi, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Fanaroff-Riley (FR) 0 radio galaxies compose a new class of radio galaxies, which are usually weaker but much more numerous than the well-established class of FR 1 and FR 2 galaxies. The latter classes have been proposed as sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with energies reaching up to eV. Based on this conjecture, the possibility of UHECR acceleration and survival in an FR 0 source environment is examined in this work. In doing so, an average spectral energy distribution (SED) based on data from the FR 0 catalog (FR0CAT) is compiled. The resulting photon fields are used as targets for UHECRs, which suffer from electromagnetic pair production, photo-disintegration, photo-meson production losses, and synchrotron radiation. Multiple mechanisms are discussed to assess the UHECR acceleration probability, including Fermi-I order and gradual shear accelerations, and particle escape from the source region. This work shows that in a hybrid scenario, combining Fermi and shear accelerations, FR 0 galaxies can contribute to the observed UHECR flux, as long as where shear acceleration starts to dominate over escape. Even in less optimistic scenarios, FR 0s can be expected to contribute to the cosmic-ray flux between the knee and the ankle. Our results are relatively robust with respect to the realized magnetic turbulence model and the speed of the accelerating shocks.
Keywords: acceleration of particles, nonthermal radiation mechanisms, jets, active galaxies, cosmic rays
Published in RUNG: 05.02.2021; Views: 2434; Downloads: 0
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3.
Biotransformation of copper oxide nanoparticles by the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea
Eva Kovačec, Marjana Regvar, Johannes Teun van Elteren, Iztok Arčon, Tamás Papp, Darko Makovec, Katarina Vogel-Mikuš, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Two plant pathogenic fungi, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata, isolated from crop plants, were exposed to Cu in ionic (Cu2þ), microparticulate (MP, CuO) or nanoparticulate (NP, Cu or CuO) form, in solid and liquid culturing media in order to test fungal response and toxic effects of the mentioned compounds for the potential use as fungicides. B. cinerea has shown pronounced growth and lower levels of lipid peroxidation compared to A. alternata. Its higher resistance/tolerance is attributed mainly to biotransformation of CuO and Cu NPs and CuO MPs into a blue compound at the fungal/culturing media interface, recognized by Cu K-edge EXAFS analysis as Cu-oxalate complex. The pronounced activity of catechol-type siderophores and organic acid secretion in B. cinerea induce leaching and mobilization of Cu ions from the particles and their further complexation with extracellularly secreted oxalic acid. The ability of pathogenic fungus to biotransform CuO MPs and NPs hampers their use as fungicides. However the results show that B. cinerea has a potential to be used in degradation of Cu(O) nanoparticles in environment, copper extraction and purification techniques.
Keywords: copper, metal oxide nanoparticles, detoxification mechanisms, metal pollution, Cu-oxalate
Published in RUNG: 23.08.2017; Views: 4204; Downloads: 0
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4.
Efficient mineralization of aqueous organic pollutants by photocatalytic ozonation
Urška Lavrenčič Štangar, Marko Kete, invited lecture at foreign university

Abstract: Photocatalytic ozonation process using TiO2 photocatalyst (O3/TiO2/UV – PH-OZ) conducted in acidic water environment often leads to synergistic effect in terms of decomposition and mineralization of aqueous organic contaminants, which makes the process suitable for waste water treatment or pretreatment of drinking water. [1,2] The synergism is among other factors (pH, O3 dose, T,…) greatly influenced by photocatalyst physicochemical properties and pollutant type. In the first part of the study, five different commercial TiO2 photocatalysts (P25, PC500, PC100, PC10 and JRC-TiO-6) were used in O2/TiO2/UV, O3/TiO2 and O3/TiO2/UV advanced oxidation systems for degradation of two pollutants (dichloroacetic acid - DCAA and thiacloprid – neonicotinoid pesticide), simultaneously present in water solution. [3] Results of PH-OZ (O3/TiO2/UV) experiments showed that in contrast to DCAA which adsorbs on TiO2 surface, synergistic effect is much more expressed in the case of thiacloprid which doesn’t adsorb. The influence of BET surface area of the photocatalyst and its dispersivity will be discussed. In the second part of this study, selected catalysts were immobilized on a proper support to avoid post-filtration step in the process of greywater treatment. A good adhesion of a catalyst on various supports was successfully achieved by immobilization of commercial TiO2 powders (P25, P90, PC500) with the help of a sol-gel silica-titania binder [4]. For the purpose of simulated greywater treatment, special compact reactor was designed and developed, utilizing Al2O3 porous reticulated monolith foams as TiO2 carriers and UVA-lamps inside (Fig. 1). [5] With degradation of LAS+PBIS and Reactive blue 19 (RB 19) as representatives of surfactants and textile dyes respectively, commonly found in household greywater, and phenol as trace contaminant, an evaluation of PH-OZ and photocatalytic oxidation has been performed (an example in Fig. 2). Synergistic effect of PH-OZ was generally much more expressed in mineralization reactions, showing TOC half lives of less than one hour for the mixture of pollutants in compact reactor. [5] Due to its superior cleaning capacity, PH-OZ process employing efficient photocatalysts is suitable for treating wastewaters also with higher loading of organic pollutants. 1. U. Černigoj, U.Lavrenčič Štangar, J. Jirkovsky, J. Hazard. Mater. (2010) 177:399–406. 2. U. Černigoj, U.Lavrenčič Štangar, P. Trebše, Appl. Catal. B Environ. (2007) 75:229–238. 3. M. Kete, U. Černigoj, U. Lavrenčič Štangar: Photocatalytic ozonation – study of reaction parameters and mechanism, article under submission 4. M. Kete, E. Pavlica, F. Fresno, G. Bratina, U. Lavrenčič Štangar, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (2014) 21:11238–11249. 5. M. Kete: Towards efficient removal of contaminants in water from household appliances by TiO2-photocatalysis: design, optimization and performance studies of the photoreactor with immobilized catalysts, Doctoral dissertation (2015), University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica.
Keywords: photocatalysis, ozonation, TiO2, dichloroacetic acid, thiacloprid, mechanisms, LAS+PBIS, Reactive blue 19, phenol
Published in RUNG: 21.07.2016; Views: 6700; Downloads: 0
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5.
6.
FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY γ-RAY EMISSION TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER
Gabrijela Zaharijas, B. L. Winer, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has provided the most detailed view to date of the emission toward the Galactic center (GC) in high-energy γ-rays. This paper describes the analysis of data taken during the first 62 months of the mission in the energy range 1–100 GeV from a 15° × 15° region about the direction of the GC. Specialized interstellar emission models (IEMs) are constructed to enable the separation of the γ-ray emissions produced by cosmic ray particles interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation fields in the Milky Way into that from the inner ∼1 kpc surrounding the GC, and that from the rest of the Galaxy. A catalog of point sources for the 15° × 15° region is self-consistently constructed using these IEMs: the First Fermi-LAT Inner Galaxy Point Source Catalog (1FIG). The spatial locations, fluxes, and spectral properties of the 1FIG sources are presented, and compared with γ-ray point sources over the same region taken from existing catalogs. After subtracting the interstellar emission and point-source contributions a residual is found. If templates that peak toward the GC are used to model the positive residual the agreement with the data improves, but none of the additional templates tried account for all of its spatial structure. The spectrum of the positive residual modeled with these templates has a strong dependence on the choice of IEM.
Keywords: cosmic rays – Galaxy: center – gamma-rays: general – gamma-rays: ISM – radiation mechanisms: non-thermal
Published in RUNG: 02.03.2016; Views: 5041; Downloads: 288
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