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1.
Performance analysis of high-spectral-resolution lidar with/without laser seeding technique for measuring aerosol optical properties
Fengjia Gao, Fei Gao, Gaipan Li, Fan Yang, Li Wang, Song Yuehui, Dengxin Hua, Samo Stanič, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: High-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) is a powerful tool for aerosol measurements. With/without laser seeding technique in the transmitted laser, the HSRL can be distinguished as the single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) HSRL or the multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM) HSRL, and the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with periodic transmittance function can be used as the spectral discriminator in both the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL. To in-depth knowledge of the respective advantages of the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL for measuring aerosol optical properties, the working principle, optimal parameter setting, and detection performance of the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL are analyzed and discussed in detail, respectively. The working principle of the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL indicate that the effective transmittance of MZI is the important parameter of data retrieval, the main source of retrieval uncertainties, and the key factor of MZI optical path difference (OPD) settings. To ensure that the MZI can achieve the preferable separation for aerosol Mie scattering signals and molecular Rayleigh scattering signals, the optimal OPDs of MZI are set at 165 mm and 1000 mm in the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL from the aspects of the effective transmittance of MZI and the spectral discrimination ratio (SDR). Besides, to analyze the influence of frequency difference and divergence angle for the detection performance of HSRL, the effective transmittance of MZI and SDR are simulated and the results show that the MLM HSRL has higher requirements for the environmental parameters and the echo beam collimation than the SLM HSRL. Moreover, the HSRLs with SLM and MLM transmitted lasers are constructed in Xi'an for measuring aerosol optical properties. The preliminary measurement results show that the range square corrected signal (RSCS) of Rayleigh channel is smaller than that of Mie channel in both the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL, while the difference between RSCS of Rayleigh channel and RSCS of Mie channel in the SLM HSRL is larger than that in the MLM HSRL, and the detection range of the SLM HSRL is lower than that of the MLM HSRL.
Keywords: aerosol optical properties, high-spectral-resolution lidar, single-longitudinal-mode, multi-longitudinal-mode, spectral discrimination ratio
Published in RUNG: 28.02.2024; Views: 298; Downloads: 2
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3.
Ultrahigh-Energy multi-messengers at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Francisco Pedreira, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezec, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The study of correlations between observations of different messengers from extreme sources of the Universe has emerged as an outstanding way to make progress in astrophysics. The Pierre Auger Observatory is capable of significant contributions as an ultra-high energy particle detector, particularly through its capability to search for inclined showers produced by neutrinos. We describe the neutrino searches made with the Observatory with particular emphasis on the recent results following the detections of gravitational waves from binary mergers with Advanced LIGO and VIRGO, leading to competitive limits.
Keywords: ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs), Pierre Auger Observatory, UHE neutrinos, multi-messenger astrophysics
Published in RUNG: 11.10.2023; Views: 792; Downloads: 5
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4.
Study on multi-ELVES in the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Vásquez Ramírez, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Since 2013, the four sites of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory record ELVES with a dedicated trigger. These UV light emissions are correlated to distant lightning strikes. The length of recorded traces has been increased from 100 μs (2013), to 300 μs (2014-16), to 900 μs (2017-present), to progressively extend the observation of the light emission towards the vertical of the causative lightning and beyond. A large fraction of the observed events shows double ELVES within the time window, and, in some cases, even more complex structures are observed. The nature of the multi-ELVES is not completely understood but may be related to the different types of lightning in which they are originated. For example, it is known that Narrow Bipolar Events can produce double ELVES, and Energetic In-cloud Pulses, occurring between the main negative and upper positive charge layer of clouds, can induce double and even quadruple ELVES in the ionosphere. This report shows the seasonal and daily dependence of the time gap, amplitude ratio, and correlation between the pulse widths of the peaks in a sample of 1000+ multi-ELVES events recorded during the period 2014-20. The events have been compared with data from other satellite and ground-based sensing devices to study the correlation of their properties with lightning observables such as altitude and polarity.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, UV light, multi-ELVES, lightning
Published in RUNG: 03.10.2023; Views: 686; Downloads: 4
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5.
The Cherenkov Telescope Array transient and multi-messenger program
Alessandro Carosi, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a next generation ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray observatory that will allow for observations in the >10 GeV range with unprece-dented photon statistics and sensitivity. This will enable the investigation of the yet-marginally explored physics of short-time-scale transient events. CTA will thus become an invaluable instru-ment for the study of the physics of the most extreme and violent objects and their interactions with the surrounding environment. The CTA Transient program includes follow-up observations of a wide range of multi-wavelength and multi-messenger alerts, ranging from compact galactic binary systems to extragalactic events such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core-collapse supernovae and bright AGN flares. In recent years, the first firm detection of GRBs by current Cherenkov telescope collaborations, the proven connection between gravitational waves and short GRBs, as well as the possible neutrino-blazar association with TXS 0506+056 have shown the importance of coordinated follow-up observations triggered by these di˙erent cosmic signals in the framework of the birth of multi-messenger astrophysics. In the next years, CTA will play a major role in these types of observations by taking advantage of its fast slewing (especially for the CTA Large Size Telescopes), large e˙ective area and good sensitivity, opening new opportunities for time-domain astrophysics in an energy range not a˙ected by selective absorption processes typical of other wavelengths. In this contribution we highlight the common approach adopted by the CTA Tran-sients physics working group to perform the study of transient sources in the very-high-energy regime.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, very-high-energy gamma-rays, CTA Transient program, multi-wavelength astronomy, multi-messenger astronomy
Published in RUNG: 18.09.2023; Views: 511; Downloads: 6
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6.
Low-luminosity jetted AGN as particle multi-messenger sources
Anita Reimer, Margot Boughelilba, Lukas Merten, Paolo Da Vela, Jon Paul Lundquist, Serguei Vorobiov, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The detection of cosmic gamma rays, high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays (CRs) signal the existence of environments in the Universe that allow particle acceleration to extremely high energies. These observable signatures from putative CR sources are the result of in-source acceleration of particles, their energy and time-dependent transport including interactions in an evolving environment and their escape from source, in addition to source-to-Earth propagation. Low-luminosity AGN jets constitute the most abundant persistent jet source population in the local Universe. The dominant subset of these, Fanaroff-Riley 0 (FR0) galaxies, have recently been proposed as sources contributing to the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux observed on Earth. This presentation assesses the survival, workings and multi-messenger signatures of UHECRs in low-luminosity jet environments, with focus on FR0 galaxies. For this purpose we use our recently developed, fully time-dependent CR particle and photon propagation framework which takes into account all relevant secondary production and energy loss processes, allows for an evolving source environment and efficient treatment of transport non-linearities due to the produced particles/photons being fed back into the simulation chain. Finally, we propagate UHE cosmic-ray nuclei and secondary cosmogenic photons and neutrinos from FR0 galaxies to Earth for several extragalactic magnetic field scenarios using the CRPropa3 framework, and confront the resulting energy spectra and composition on Earth with the current observational situation.
Keywords: multi-messenger astrophysics, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, very-high-energy gamma-rays
Published in RUNG: 13.09.2023; Views: 668; Downloads: 5
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7.
Multi-Objective K-Center Sum Clustering Problem
Soumen Atta, Priya Ranjan Sinha Mahapatra, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Given a set P of n objects in two dimensional plane and a positive integer k (≤ n), we have considered the problem of partitioning P into k clusters of circular shape so as to minimize the following two objectives: (i) the sum of radii of these k circular clusters and (ii) the number of points of P covered by more than one circular cluster. The NSGA-II based multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) has been proposed to solve this problem.
Keywords: k-center sum problem, Clustering problem, Multi-objective optimization, NSGA-II, Facility location problem
Published in RUNG: 05.06.2023; Views: 880; Downloads: 0
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8.
Multi-objective uncapacitated facility location problem with customers’ preferences: Pareto-based and weighted sum GA-based approaches
Soumen Atta, Priya Ranjan Sinha Mahapatra, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The uncapacitated facility location problem (UFLP) is a well-known combinatorial optimization problem having single-objective function. The objective of UFLP is to find a subset of facilities from a given set of potential facility locations such that the sum of the opening costs of the opened facilities and the service cost to serve all the customers is minimized. In traditional UFLP, customers are served by their nearest facilities. In this article, we have proposed a multi-objective UFLP where each customer has a preference for each facility. Hence, the objective of the multi-objective UFLP with customers’ preferences (MOUFLPCP) is to open a subset of facilities to serve all the customers such that the sum of the opening cost and service cost is minimized and the sum of the preferences is maximized. In this article, the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), a popular Pareto-based GA, is employed to solve this problem. Moreover, a weighted sum genetic algorithm (WSGA)-based approach is proposed to solve MOUFLPCP where conflicting two objectives of the problem are aggregated to a single quality measure. For experimental purposes, new test instances of MOUFLPCP are created from the existing UFLP benchmark instances and the experimental results obtained using NSGA-II and WSGA-based approaches are demonstrated and compared for these newly created test instances.
Keywords: Uncapacitated facility location problem (UFLP), Multi-objective UFLP with customers’ preferences (MOUFLPCP), NSGA-II, Weighted sum genetic algorithm (WSGA)
Published in RUNG: 17.04.2023; Views: 863; Downloads: 0
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9.
A multi-objective formulation of maximal covering location problem with customers’ preferences: Exploring Pareto optimality-based solutions
Soumen Atta, Priya Ranjan Sinha Mahapatra, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The maximal covering location problem (MCLP) is a well-known combinatorial optimization problem with several applications in emergency and military services as well as in public services. Traditionally, MCLP is a single objective problem where the objective is to maximize the sum of the demands of customers which are served by a fixed number of open facilities. In this article, a multi-objective MCLP is proposed where each customer has a preference for each facility. The multi-objective MCLP with customers’ preferences (MOMCLPCP) deals with the opening of a fixed number of facilities from a given set of potential facility locations and then customers are assigned to these opened facilities such that both (i) the sum of the demands of customers and (ii) the sum of the preferences of the customers covered by these opened facilities are maximized. A Pareto-based multi-objective harmony search algorithm (MOHSA), which utilizes a harmony refinement strategy for faster convergence, is proposed to solve MOMCLPCP. The proposed MOHSA is terminated based on the stabilization of the density of non-dominated solutions. For experimental purposes, 82 new test instances of MOMCLPCP are generated from the existing single objective MCLP benchmark data sets. The performance of the proposed MOHSA is compared with the well-known non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), and it has been observed that the proposed MOHSA always outperforms NSGA-II in terms of computation time. Moreover, statistical tests show that the objective values obtained from both algorithms are comparable.
Keywords: Maximal covering location problem (MCLP), Multi-objective MCLP, Customers’ preferences, Multi-objective harmony search algorithm (MOHSA), NSGA II, CPLEX
Published in RUNG: 17.04.2023; Views: 729; Downloads: 0
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10.
Investigation of the effective transmittance of Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the multi-longitudinal-mode high-spectral-resolution lidar
Fei Gao, Fengjia Gao, Xiao Yang, Gaipan Li, Li Wang, Meng Wang, Dengxin Hua, Griša Močnik, Samo Stanič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Effective transmittance is an important parameter of Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the retrieval of aerosol optical properties using the multi-longitudinal-mode high-spectral-resolution lidar, which is a function of the complex degree of coherence. In this paper, we retrieve the parameter of the complex degree of coherence for the multi-longitudinal-mode laser from the theoretical analysis, optical simulation and experimental measurements, which are 0.726, 0.678 and 0.453 using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the optimal optical path difference of two times of laser optical cavity length (∼1000 mm) and under the light illumination of the high power Nd:YAG laser with the mode number of 101 and mode interval of 300 MHz under the condition of laser linewidth of 1 cm−1 (30 GHz). The preliminary measurement results of aerosol optical properties using the constructing multi-longitudinal-mode high-spectral-resolution lidar show that the difference of the complex degree of coherence retrieved from the presented methods results in the relative error of 40% in the aerosol backscattering coefficient with thin cloud layer and 90% with the presence of dense aerosol layer.
Keywords: effective transmittance, Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Multi-logitudinal-mode laser, High-spectral-resolution lidar
Published in RUNG: 20.09.2022; Views: 1408; Downloads: 0
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