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What's in the middle? Reflections on Brown et al. (2001)
Arthur Stepanov, unpublished conference contribution

Keywords: intermediate acceptability rating, experimental syntax, multiple wh-question, Superiority effect
Published in RUNG: 03.05.2023; Views: 969; Downloads: 0
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Multiple allocation p-hub location problem for content placement in VoD services: a differential evolution based approach
Soumen Atta, Goutam Sen, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: In video-on-demand (VoD) services, large volumes of digital data are kept at hubs which are spatially distributed over large geographic areas and users are connected to these hubs based on their demands. In this article, we consider a large database of video files, that are pre-partitioned to multiple segments based on the demand patterns of users. These segments are restricted to be located only in hubs. Here, users are allowed to be allocated to multiple hubs and all hubs are assumed to be connected with each other. We jointly decide the location of hubs, the placement of segments to these hubs and then the assignment of users to these hubs as per their demand patterns and finally, we find the optimal paths to route the demands of users for different segments having the objective of minimizing the total routing cost. In this article, a differential evolution (DE) based method is proposed to solve the problem. The proposed DE-based method utilizes an efficient function to evaluate the objective value of a candidate solution to the proposed problem. It also incorporates two problem-specific solution refinement techniques for faster convergence. Instances of the problem are generated from the real world movie database and the proposed method is applied to these instances and the performance is evaluated against the benchmark results obtained from CPLEX.
Keywords: Video-on-demand (VoD) services, Content distribution networks, Database segment location, Hub location, Multiple hub allocation, Differential evolution (DE), IBM ILOG CPLEX
Published in RUNG: 17.04.2023; Views: 1026; Downloads: 0
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Antibiotics and their different application strategies in controlling the biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria
Fazlurrahman Khan, Dung T N Pham, Sandra Oloketuyi, Young-Mog Kim, 2020, review article

Abstract: Background: The establishment of a biofilm by most pathogenic bacteria has been known as one of the resistance mechanisms against antibiotics. A biofilm is a structural component where the bacterial community adheres to the biotic or abiotic surfaces by the help of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) produced by bacterial cells. The biofilm matrix possesses the ability to resist several adverse environmental factors, including the effect of antibiotics. Therefore, the resistance of bacterial biofilm-forming cells could be increased up to 1000 times than the planktonic cells, hence requiring a significantly high concentration of antibiotics for treatment. Methods: Up to the present, several methodologies employing antibiotics as an anti-biofilm, antivirulence or quorum quenching agent have been developed for biofilm inhibition and eradication of a pre-formed mature biofilm. Results: Among the anti-biofilm strategies being tested, the sub-minimal inhibitory concentration of several antibiotics either alone or in combination has been shown to inhibit biofilm formation and down-regulate the production of virulence factors. The combinatorial strategies include (1) combination of multiple antibiotics, (2) combination of antibiotics with non-antibiotic agents and (3) loading of antibiotics onto a carrier. Conclusion: The present review paper describes the role of several antibiotics as biofilm inhibitors and also the alternative strategies adopted for applications in eradicating and inhibiting the formation of biofilm by pathogenic bacteria.
Keywords: Antibiotics, biofilm inhibition, multiple antibiotics, pathogenic bacteria, resistance mechanism, virulence factors
Published in RUNG: 14.01.2021; Views: 2645; Downloads: 0
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Gal Kirn, 2014, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Keywords: multistability, parallax view, multiple temporality, revolutionary time, partisan poetry, WW2, partisan art, determination, alternative world
Published in RUNG: 21.08.2020; Views: 2612; Downloads: 0
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Surviving sluicing
Franc Marušič, Petra Mišmaš, Vesna Plesničar, Tina Šuligoj, 2016, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: sluicing, discourse particles, multiple wh-fronting, wh-phrase, left periphery, syntax, Slovenian
Published in RUNG: 14.12.2016; Views: 4759; Downloads: 0
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The left periphery of multiple wh-questions in Slovenian
Petra Mišmaš, 2016, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: In this paper I focus on multiple wh-questions in Slovenian and argue for an analysis in which wh-phrases move to the extended left periphery of the sentence. Assuming the Cartographic approach, I consider the order of wh-phrases in Slovenian multiple wh-questions, which was previously described as free, e.g. Golden (1997). While I confirm that the order of wh-phrases in the left periphery is generally free, I show that there are some exceptions, e.g. zakaj ‘why’ and kako ‘how’ tend to precede other wh-phrases. In addition, I show that the order of wh-phrases with respect to focus and topic phrases is free, but that one wh-phrase needs to appear in a clause initial position for a question to get a true wh-question reading. Based on this, I propose that the clause initial wh-phrase moves to the Interrogative Projection, in the sense of Rizzi (2001a), and the remaining wh-phrases to Wh-Projections. Crucially, because wh-movement is not restricted by a requirement on chains, cf. Krapova & Cinque (2005), the order of wh-phrases is free.
Keywords: wh-questions, multiple wh-fronting, left periphery, syntax, cartography, Slovenian
Published in RUNG: 13.12.2016; Views: 4619; Downloads: 0
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On the Optionality of Wh-Fronting in a Multiple Wh-Fronting Language
Petra Mišmaš, 2015, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: This thesis explores the fact that in Slovenian multiple wh-questions not all wh-phrases have to front. This suggests that multiple wh-movement in Slovenian is optional. The majority of the existing literature on multiple wh-fronting focuses on questions in which all wh-phrases have to move to clause initial positions, I, on the other hand, focus on optionality in multiple wh-questions. I show movement in Slovenian is not avoided because of phonological, syntactic or semantic restrictions that influence other languages (cf. Bošković 2002), and that the Principle of Distinctness (Richards 2010) does not account for all cases of optional multiple wh-fronting in Slovenian. Three types of multiple wh-questions in Slovenian are determined and analyzed: (i) questions in which all wh-phrases move to clause initial positions (i.e. questions with multiple wh-fronting), (ii) questions in which one wh-phrase has to be moved to a clause initial position and the rest undergo movement to a clause internal position (multiple wh-questions with short movement), (iii) questions in which at least one wh-phrase has to be moved to a clause initial position and the rest stay in situ (multiple wh-questions with wh-in-situ). Crucially, in all three types at least one wh-phrase has to move to a clause initial position for a question to receive a true question reading. I assume the Cartographic approach and propose an account of multiple wh-fronting in Slovenian in which one wh-phrase has to move to an Interrogative Projection (the clause initial position) in the Left Periphery while the remaining wh-phrases move to Wh-Projections in the Left Periphery, questions in (i), or the Low Periphery, questions in (ii). I propose that wh-phrases with a wh-feature undergo wh-movement, which means that wh-movement is in fact obligatory in Slovenian. In questions of type (iii), wh-phrases that do not undergo movement are in fact bare wh-pronouns, which one also finds in polarity contexts, that are licensed by the interpretable Q+wh-feature located in the Interrogative Projection. Because the bare wh-pronouns do not come with a wh-feature, they do not have to move. I conclude that wh-movement in Slovenian only appears to be optional.
Keywords: multiple wh-fronting, short movement, optionality, Interrogative Projection, Left Periphery, Low Periphery, bare wh-pronouns, wh-in-situ
Published in RUNG: 10.11.2015; Views: 8147; Downloads: 416
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