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A study of analysis method for the identification of UHECR source type
F. Yoshida, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The autocorrelation analysis using the arrival direction of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) has been previously reported by the Telescope Array (TA) experiment. It is expected that the autocorrelation function reflects the source distribution. We simulate the expected arrival direction distribution of the cosmic rays using the catalogs of candidate sources. We take into account random deflection in the magnetic fields, with the magnitude of deflection determined by the charge and energy of the cosmic rays, coherence length and magnitude of the extragalactic magnetic field (EGMF), and by distance to source. In addition, in order to compare with the results of TA experiment, we consider the TA exposure. We compare the autocorrelation of the arrival directions corresponding to different source catalogs with the isotropic distribution. We calculate the autocorrelation function for each type of source candidates using this procedure. We will discuss the ability of this method to identify the source type of UHECRs.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition, anisotropy, autocorrelation, source models, magnetic fields
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 887; Downloads: 7
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Adjustments to Model Predictions of Depth of Shower Maximum and Signals at Ground Level using Hybrid Events of the Pierre Auger Observatory
J. Vicha, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: We present a new method to explore simple ad-hoc adjustments to the predictions of hadronic interaction models to improve their consistency with observed two-dimensional distributions of the depth of shower maximum, Xmax, and signal at ground level, as a function of zenith angle. The method relies on the assumption that the mass composition is the same at all zenith angles, while the atmospheric shower development and attenuation depend on composition in a correlated way. In the present work, for each of the three leading LHC-tuned hadronic interaction models, we allow a global shift ΔXmax of the predicted shower maximum, which is the same for every mass and energy, and a rescaling R_Had of the hadronic component at ground level which depends on the zenith angle. We apply the analysis to 2297 events reconstructed by both fluorescence and surface detectors at the Pierre Auger Observatory with energies 10^18.5−10^19.0 eV. Given the modeling assumptions made in this analysis, the best fit reaches its optimum value when shifting the Xmax predictions of hadronic interaction models to deeper values and increasing the hadronic signal at both extreme zenith angles. The resulting change in the composition towards heavier primaries alleviates the previously identified model deficit in the hadronic signal (commonly called the muon deficit), but does not remove it. Because of the size of the required corrections ΔXmax and R_Had and the large number of events in the sample, the statistical significance of the corrections is large, greater than 5σstat even for the combination of experimental systematic shifts within 1σsys that are the most favorable for the models.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ground array, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, Xmax, muon deficit, air-shower models
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 710; Downloads: 6
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Irena Subotić, 2022, master's thesis

Abstract: The need for a Circular Economy became more than obvious, and in line with that, technologies for utilization of renewables and waste-to-energy transformation have become of utmost importance in climate change mitigation. This master thesis deals with treating the waste after olive oil extraction and using anaerobic digestion to turn the waste into a biogas that later can be used for electricity and heat production. Since there are two options for location, it was necessary to use decision support models to remove subjectivity and bias from the decision-making process. After the decision was made, there was an economic analysis of a biogas plant project that later can be used for establishing a new company in Italy. According to the economic indicators, with a profit of 5.243.000 EUR after ten years and an investment return of less than five years, a biogas plant in Italy is a profitable investment. From the aspect of Circular Economy, the biogas plant successfully fits the concept. It has added value to the local community by turning one process by-product into primary material for another process, creating jobs and generating revenue for the municipal budget while preserving natural resources.
Keywords: circular economy, decision support models, biogas, strategic management
Published in RUNG: 11.07.2022; Views: 1900; Downloads: 65
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On the interpretation of scalar implicatures infirst andsecond language
Greta Mazzaggio, Daniele Panizza, Luca Surian, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: We investigated the effect of presenting items in a foreign language (L2) on scalar- implicatures computation. To ensure that L2 processing was more effortful than the pro- cessing of the native language (L1), participants were late learners of L2 immersed in an L1 environment and they were presented with oral stimuli under time constraints. If scalar- implicatures computation requires cognitive effort one should !nd that people are more likely to compute scalar implicatures in L1 than in L2. In two experiments, participants were asked to perform a Sentence Evaluation Task either Italian, their native language, or in a foreign language (English or Spanish). The task included underinformative statements such as “Some dogs are animals” that, if interpreted in a pragmatic way (i.e., “Some but not all dogs are animals”) should be rejected as false. In both experiments, we found more rejections in the native language condition than in the foreign language conditions. These results provide support for models that maintain that scalar-implicature computation is effortful.
Keywords: scalar implicatures, pragmatics, default models, non-default models, second-language comprehension
Published in RUNG: 17.09.2021; Views: 2003; Downloads: 0
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