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1.
The Cherenkov Telescope Array
Daniel Mazin, Christopher Eckner, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very-high energies. It will be capable of detecting gamma rays in the energy range from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV with unprecedented precision in energy and directional reconstruction. With more than 100 telescopes of three different types it will be located in the northern hemisphere at La Palma, Spain, and in the southern at Paranal, Chile. CTA will be one of the largest astronomical infrastructures in the world with open data access and it will address questions in astronomy, astrophysics and fundamental physics in the next decades. In this presentation we will focus on the status of the CTA construction, the status of the telescope prototypes and highlight some of the physics perspectives.
Keywords: very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA sensitivity, gamma-ray bursts, POpulation Synthesis Theory Integrated project for very high-energy emission
Published in RUNG: 04.12.2023; Views: 948; Downloads: 3
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2.
POSyTIVE : a GRB population study for the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Maria Grazia Bernardini, Christopher Eckner, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: One of the central scientific goals of the next-generation Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the detection and characterization of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). CTA will be sensitive to gamma rays with energies from about 20 GeV, up to a few hundred TeV. The energy range below 1 TeV is particularly important for GRBs. CTA will allow exploration of this regime with a ground-based gamma-ray facility with unprecedented sensitivity. As such, it will be able to probe radiation and particle acceleration mechanisms at work in GRBs. In this contribution, we describe POSyTIVE, the POpulation Synthesis Theory Integrated project for very high-energy emission. The purpose of the project is to make realistic predictions for the detection rates of GRBs with CTA, to enable studies of individual simulated GRBs, and to perform preparatory studies for time-resolved spectral analyses. The mock GRB population used by POSyTIVE is calibrated using the entire 40-year dataset of multi-wavelength GRB observations. As part of this project we explore theoretical models for prompt and afterglow emission of long and short GRBs, and predict the expected radiative output. Subsequent analyses are performed in order to simulate the observations with CTA, using the publicly available ctools and Gammapy frameworks. We present preliminary results of the design and implementation of this project.
Keywords: very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA sensitivity, gamma-ray bursts, population Synthesis Theory, very high-energy emission
Published in RUNG: 04.12.2023; Views: 1253; Downloads: 1
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3.
Efficiency of the grid energy storage technology based on iron-chloride material cycle
Uroš Luin, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Future high-capacity energy storage technologies are crucial for a highly renewable energy mix, and their mass deployment must rely on cheap and abundant materials, such as iron chloride. The iron chloride electrochemical cycle (ICEC), suitable for long-term grid energy storage using a redox potential change of Fe2+/Fe, involves the electrolysis of a highly concentrated aqueous FeCl2 solution yielding solid iron deposits. For the high overall energy efficiency of the cycle, it is crucial maximizing the energy efficiency of the electrolysis process. The thesis presents a study of the influence of electrolysis parameters on energy efficiency, performed in an industrial-type electrolyzer system. We studied the conductivity of the FeCl2 solution as a function of concentration and temperature and correlated it with the electrolysis energy efficiency as a function of current density. The contribution of the resistance polarization increases with the current density, causing a decrease in overall energy efficiency. The highest energy efficiency of 89 ±3 % was achieved using 2.5 mol dm-3 FeCl2 solution at 70 °C and a current density of 0.1 kA m-2. In terms of the energy input per Fe mass, this means 1.88 Wh g-1. The limiting energy input per mass of the Fe-deposit, calculated by extrapolating experimental results toward Eocell potential, was found to be 1.76 Wh g-1. For optimal long-duration electrolysis efficiency and performance, the optimal catholyte concentration range is 1-2 mol dm-3 FeCl2. We performed in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy experimental studies to validate theoretical conclusions from literature related to the population and structure of Fe-species in the FeCl2 (aq) solution at different concentrations (1 - 4 mol dm-3) and temperatures (25 - 80 °C). This revealed that at low temperature and low FeCl2 concentration, the octahedral first coordination sphere around Fe is occupied by one Cl ion at a distance of 2.33 (±0.02) Å and five H2O at a distance of 2.095 (±0.005) Å. The structure of the ionic complex gradually changes with an increase in temperature and/or concentration. The apical H2O is substituted by a Cl ion to yield a neutral Fe[Cl2(H2O)4]0. The transition from the charged Fe[Cl(H2O)5]+ to the neutral Fe[Cl2(H2O)4]0 causes a significant drop in the solution conductivity, which well correlates with the existing state-of-the-art conductivity models. An additional steric impediment of the electrolytic cell is caused by the predominant neutral species present in the catholyte solution at high concentration. This correlates with poor electrolysis performance at a very high catholyte concentration (4 mol dm-3 FeCl2), especially at high current densities (> 1 kA m-2). The neutral Fe[Cl2(H2O)4]0 complex negatively affects the anion exchange membrane ion (Cl-) transfer and lowers the concentration of electroactive species (Fe[Cl(H2O)5]+) at the cathode surface. The kinetics of hydrogen evolution from the reaction between Fe powder and HCl acid was studied under the first-order reaction condition. The activation energy was determined to be 55.3 kJ mol-1.
Keywords: ICEC, Power-to-Solid, energy storage, hydrogen, ferrous chloride, electrolysis, Fe deposition, efficiency, XAS, structure and population, ionic species, ion association, conductivity
Published in RUNG: 18.04.2023; Views: 1735; Downloads: 26  (1 vote)
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4.
Population-based improvement heuristic with local search for single-row facility layout problem
Soumen Atta, Priya Ranjan Sinha Mahapatra, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The Single-Row Facility Layout Problem (SRFLP) is a well-known combinatorial optimization problem. The objective of SRFLP is to find out the arrangement of facilities with given lengths on a line so that the weighted sum of the distances between all pairs of facilities is minimized. This problem is known to be NP-hard. Hence, a population-based improvement heuristic algorithm with local search is presented in this article to solve SRFLP. The proposed algorithm works well also for the Single-Row Equidistant Facility Layout Problem (SREFLP), where the length of each facility is equal. The computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm is checked with the instances of sizes ranging from 5 to 300 available in the literature for SRFLP and SREFLP. The obtained results are compared to those from different state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed algorithm achieves best known solutions to date for every instance considered in this article in reasonable computational time.
Keywords: Single-row facility layout problem (SRFLP), single-row equidistant facility layout problem (SREFLP), population-based heuristic, improvement heuristic, local search
Published in RUNG: 17.04.2023; Views: 1085; Downloads: 0
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5.
Correlation between FeCl2 electrolyte conductivity and electrolysis efficiency
Uroš Luin, Matjaž Valant, Iztok Arčon, 2022, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The electrolysis efficiency is an important aspect of the Power-to-Solid energy storage technology (EST) based on the iron chloride electrochemical cycle [1]. This cycle employs an aqueous FeCl2 catholyte solution for the electro-reduction of iron. The metal iron deposits on the cathode. The energy is stored as a difference in the redox potential of iron species. Hydrogen, as an energy carrier, is released on demand over a fully controlled hydrogen evolution reaction between metallic Fe0 and HCl (aq) [1]. Due to these characteristics, the cycle is suitable for long-term high-capacity and high-power energy storage. In a previous work [2] we revealed that the electrolyte conductivity linearly increases with temperature. Contrary, the correlation between the electrolyte concentration and efficiency is not so straightforward. Unexpectedly small efficiency variations were found between 1 and 2.5 mol dm-3 FeCl2 (aq) followed by an abrupt efficiency drop at higher concentrations. To explain the behavior of the observed trends and elucidate the role of FeCl2 (aq) complex ionic species we performed in situ X-ray absorption studies. We made a dedicated experimental setup, consisting of a tubular oven and PMMA liquid absorption cell, and performed the measurements at the DESY synchrotron P65 beamline. The XAS investigation covered XANES and EXAFS analyses of FeCl2 (aq) at different concentrations (1 - 4 molL-1) and temperatures (25 - 80 °C). We found that at low temperature and low FeCl2 concentration the octahedral first coordination sphere around Fe is occupied by one Cl ion at a distance of 2.33 (±0.02) Å and five water molecules at a distance of 2.095 (±0.005) Å [3]. The structure of the ionic complex gradually changes with an increase in temperature and/or concentration. The apical water molecule is substituted by a chlorine ion to yield a neutral Fe[Cl2(H2O)4]0. The transition from the single charged Fe[Cl(H2O)5]+ to the neutral Fe[Cl2(H2O)4]0 causes a significant drop in the solution conductivity, which well correlates with the existing conductivity models [3]. [1] M. Valant, “Procedure for electric energy storage in solid matter. United States Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. US20200308715,” Patent No. US20200308715, 2021. [2] U. Luin and M. Valant, “Electrolysis energy efficiency of highly concentrated FeCl2 solutions for power-to-solid energy storage technology,” J. Solid State Electrochem., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 929–938, Apr. 2022, doi: 10.1007/S10008-022-05132-Y. [3] U. Luin, I. Arčon, and M. Valant, “Structure and Population of Complex Ionic Species in FeCl2 Aqueous Solution by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy,” Molecules, vol. 27, no. 3, 2022, doi: 10.3390/molecules27030642.
Keywords: Iron chloride electrochemical cycle, Power-to-Solid energy storage, XANES, EXAFS, electrical conductivity, electrolyte complex ionic species structure and population
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2022; Views: 1979; Downloads: (1 vote)
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6.
Structure and population of complex ionic species in FeCl[sub]2 aqueous solution by X-ray absorption spectroscopy
Uroš Luin, Iztok Arčon, Matjaž Valant, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Technologies for mass production require cheap and abundant materials such as ferrous chloride (FeCl2). The literature survey shows the lack of experimental studies to validate theoretical conclusions related to the population of ionic Fe-species in the aqueous FeCl2 solution. Here, we present an in situ X-ray absorption study of the structure of the ionic species in the FeCl2 aqueous solution at different concentrations (1–4 molL−1) and temperatures (25–80 ◦C). We found that at low temperature and low FeCl2 concentration, the octahedral first coordination sphere around Fe is occupied by one Cl ion at a distance of 2.33 (±0.02) Å and five water molecules at a distance of 2.095 (±0.005) Å. The structure of the ionic complex gradually changes with an increase in temperature and/or concentration. The apical water molecule is substituted by a chlorine ion to yield a neutral Fe[Cl2(H2O)4]0. The observed substitutional mechanism is facilitated by the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds as well as entropic reasons. The transition from the single charged Fe[Cl(H2O)5]+ to the neutral Fe[Cl2(H2O)4]0 causes a significant drop in the solution conductivity, which well correlates with the existing conductivity models.
Keywords: structure, population, ionic species, aqueous ferrous chloride, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy
Published in RUNG: 24.01.2022; Views: 2074; Downloads: 42  (1 vote)
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7.
8.
Introduction
Gal Kirn, 2021, preface, editorial, afterword

Keywords: politics of dissent, riots as dissent, critique of property and state, riotous uprising, lumpenproletariat, surplus population
Published in RUNG: 05.01.2021; Views: 2204; Downloads: 0
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9.
Riots: On Surplus Population/Housing/Monuments
Gal Kirn, Niloufar Tajeri, 2018, unpublished conference contribution

Keywords: surplus population, riots, monument to riots, form of riots, destruction of urban fabric, regeneration projects, urban renewal, urban destruction
Published in RUNG: 25.08.2020; Views: 2673; Downloads: 0
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10.
Awakening Lazarus: Forgotten Figures — Masses and Surplus?
Gal Kirn, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: The text aims to think through a figure largely forgotten in radical philosophy or communist theology discussions today: the Biblical figure(s) of Lazarus. The absence of this figure from current discussions might have to do with something that was pointed out by Balibar as the ongoing "fear of the masses," and with their political awakening that is usually interpreted as violence, failure, riotous noise and absence of political program/ organization. I will perform a close reading of two stories of 1 This text is an edited lecture that was presented at the conference in St. Pe-tersburg. I would like to thank participants of the conference for their comments, Na-thaniel Boyd and especially Dominic Martin for their additional reflections on the political theology of Lazarus, and lastly the peer reviewers for their close reading of lacu-nae of the earlier version of this text.
Keywords: political subjectivation, awakening, resurrection, surplus population, Lumpenproletariat, Fanon, Foucault, Marx
Published in RUNG: 19.08.2020; Views: 2369; Downloads: 0
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