Advantages and disadvantages of experiments with ultrashort two-color pulsesMatija Stupar
, 2020, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: Advances in the development of lasers have led to a new class of radiation sources generating coherent, tunable, ultrashort light pulses in the spectral region ranging from infrared to soft X-rays. This includes high-order harmonics generation in gas (HHG), on which relies the CITIUS facility at University of Nova Gorica (Slovenia), and free-electron lasers (FELs), such as the facility FERMI at Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste (Italy). The distinctive structure of HHG and FEL radiation paved the way to time-resolved experiments, which are performed to investigate events occurring on a short, or very short, temporal scale, from picoseconds to femtoseconds.
This work focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of some experimental techniques based on using these novel light sources to investigate the microscopic and/or ultrafast dynamics of matter samples, which have been previously driven out of equilibrium.
Advantages rely on the implementation of various applications based on two-color schemes and, more specifically, include the possibility of acquiring two-dimensional frequency maps, measuring electrons’ effective masses, or investigating electronic properties decoupled from the influence of the lattice. Particular focus will be put on experimental methods relying on photoelectric effect and photoelectron spectroscopy. In all experiments, we took advantage of one or more specific properties of HHG and FEL sources, such as controllable chirp, to study laser dressed states in helium, variable polarization, to study electronic properties of iron-based pnictides and ultrashort pulses (< 10 fs) to study the purely electronic dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenides.
On the other hand, the study of the interface between a molecule and a topological insulator revealed some intrinsic limitations and physical drawbacks of the technique, such as spurious effects originating from the high power pulses, like multiphoton absorption and the space charge effect, or the reduction of experimental resolution when pushing for shorter and shorter pulse durations. Some disadvantages are also connected to the current state-of-the-art in the field of ultrashort laser systems, where a trade-off needs to be found between repetition rate and laser power.
Finally, state-of-the-art experiments based on the ability to generate ultrashort pulses carrying orbital angular momentum in visible, near-infrared as well as extreme UV range will be presented. The use of these pulses opens the door to the investigation of new physical phenomena, such as probing magnetic vortices using extreme ultraviolet light from a free-electron laser or imprinting the spatial distribution of an ultrashort infrared pulse carrying orbital angular momentum onto a photoelectron wave packet.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: ultrafast lasers, two-color experiments, photoemission, high-order harmonic generation, free-electron lasers, hot-electrons dynamics, surface science, pump-probe photoemission, ultraviolet photoemission, orbital angular momentum
Published: 02.12.2020; Views: 2505; Downloads: 84
Fulltext (19,78 MB)
Designing new renewable nano-structured electrode and membrane materials for direct alkaline ethanol fuel cellDe Chen
, Jia Yang
, Jørgen Svendby
, Qingjun Chen
, Gvido Bratina
, Egon Pavlica
, Ji-Song Huang
, Jessie Lue Shingjiang
, 2020, final research report
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...cell, ethanol oxidation, graphene, oxygen reduction, catalyst, pt-free, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
Keywords: fuel cell, ethanol oxidation, graphene, oxygen reduction, catalyst, pt-free, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Published: 03.12.2020; Views: 1859; Downloads: 0
Fulltext (5,31 MB)
Chelating effect in short polymers for the design of bidentate binders of increased affinity and selectivitySara Fortuna
, Federico Fogolari
, Giacinto Scoles
, 2015, original scientific article
Abstract: The design of new strong and selective binders is a key step towards the development of new sensing devices and effective drugs. Both affinity and selectivity can be increased through chelation and here we theoretically explore the possibility of coupling two binders through a flexible linker. We prove the enhanced ability of double binders of keeping their target with a simple model where a polymer composed by hard spheres interacts with a spherical macromolecule, such as a protein, through two sticky spots. By Monte Carlo simulations and thermodynamic integration we show the chelating effect to hold for coupling polymers whose radius of gyration is comparable to size of the chelated particle. We show the binding free energy of flexible double binders to be higher than that of two single binders and to be maximized when the binding sites are at distances comparable to the mean free polymer end-to-end distance. The affinity of two coupled binders is therefore predicted to increase non linearly and in turn, by targeting two non-equivalent binding sites, this will lead to higher selectivity.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: chelation, polymer, multivalency, bidentate, free energy, thermodynamic integration, Monte Carlo
Published: 11.10.2016; Views: 3259; Downloads: 137
Fulltext (1,68 MB)