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1.
Telescope Array Cloud Ranging Test
T. Okuda, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment detects air-showers induced by ultra high energy cosmic rays. The TA atmospheric Fluorescence telescopic Detector(TAFD) observes cosmic ray airshower, which is incident very far from the telescope. The observation does not take place in overcast night. However, the cloud status changes quickly and sometimes there are some isolated clouds. If the cloud is behind the airshower as viewed from the TAFD, the cloud presents no problem for airshower reconstruction. However if the cloud obscures the airshower, it does create a problem for airshower reconstruction. The problematic event can be rejected by airshower profile at reconstruction. However, the estimation of exposure with isolated cloud is difficult. And it should be affected more at higher energy event with relatively further from the telescope, which is lower statistics and more important for the ultra high energy cosmic ray physics. Therefore, to test the method for evaluating the correction of exposure, we installed stereo cloud cameras near one of FD sites. I report the status of the study of the Telescope Array Cloud Ranging Test.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, atmosphere, cloud detection, exposure, air shower reconstruction
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1109; Downloads: 7
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2.
Update of the Offline Framework for AugerPrime
L. Nellen, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Work on the Offline Framework for the Pierre Auger Observatory was started in 2003 to create a universal framework for event reconstruction and simulation. The development and installation of the AugerPrime upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory require an update of the Offline Framework to handle the additional detector components and the upgraded Surface Detector Electronics. The design of the Offline Framework proved to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the changes needed to be able to handle the AugerPrime detector. This flexibility has been a goal since the development of the code started. The framework separates data structures from processing modules. The detector components map directly onto data structures. It was straightforward to update or add processing modules to handle the additional information from the new detectors. We will discuss the general structure of the Offline Framework, explaining the design decisions that provided its flexibility and point out the few of the features of the original design that required deeper changes, which could have been avoided in hindsight. Given the disruptive nature of the AugerPrime upgrade, the developers decided that the update for AugerPrime was the moment to change also the language standard for the implementation and move to the latest version of C++, to break strict backward compatibility eliminating deprecated interfaces, and to modernize the development infrastructure. We will discuss the changes that were made to the structure in general and the modules that were added to the framework to handle the new detector components.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, event reconstruction, simulation, software framework
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1037; Downloads: 5
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3.
Telescope Array Surface Detector Energy and Arrival Direction Estimation Using Deep Learning
O. Kalashev, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: A novel ultra-high-energy cosmic rays energy and arrival direction reconstruction method for Telescope Array surface detector is presented. The analysis is based on a deep convolutional neural network using detector signal time series as the input and the network is trained on a large Monte-Carlo dataset. This method is compared in terms of statistical and systematic energy and arrival direction determination errors with the standard Telescope Array surface detector event reconstruction procedure.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy, arrival directions, reconstruction, machine learning, neural network
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 834; Downloads: 6
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4.
Performance of the Cherenkov Telescope Array in the presence of clouds
Mario Pecimotika, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very high energies. The atmosphere is an integral part of every Cherenkov telescope. Di˙erent atmospheric conditions, such as clouds, can reduce the fraction of Cherenkov photons produced in air showers that reach ground-based telescopes, which may a˙ect the performance. Decreased sensitivity of the telescopes may lead to misconstructed energies and spectra. This study presents the impact of various atmospheric conditions on CTA performance. The atmospheric transmission in a cloudy atmosphere in the wavelength range from 203 nm to 1000 nm was simulated for di˙erent cloud bases and di˙erent optical depths using the MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN) code. MODTRAN output files were used as inputs for generic Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis was performed using the MAGIC Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) adapted for CTA. As expected, the e˙ects of clouds are most evident at low energies, near the energy threshold. Even in the presence of dense clouds, high-energy gamma rays may still trigger the telescopes if the first interaction occurs lower in the atmosphere, below the cloud base. A method to analyze very high-energy data obtained in the presence of clouds is presented. The systematic uncertainties of the method are evaluated. These studies help to gain more precise knowledge about the CTA response to cloudy conditions and give insights on how to proceed with data obtained in such conditions. This may prove crucial for alert-based observations and time-critical studies of transient phenomena.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, very-high energy gamma rays, MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission code, MAGIC Analysis and Reconstruction Software
Published in RUNG: 18.09.2023; Views: 809; Downloads: 4
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5.
Prototype Open Event Reconstruction Pipeline for the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Maximilian Nöthe, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next-generation gamma-ray observatory currently under construction. It will improve over the current generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) by a factor of five to ten in sensitivity and it will be able to observe the whole sky from a combination of two sites: a northern site in La Palma, Spain, and a southern one in Paranal, Chile. CTA will also be the first open gamma-ray observatory. Accordingly, the data analysis pipeline is developed as open-source software. The event reconstruction pipeline accepts raw data of the telescopes and processes it to produce suitable input for the higher-level science tools. Its primary tasks include reconstructing the physical properties of each recorded shower and providing the corresponding instrument response functions. ctapipe is a framework providing algorithms and tools to facilitate raw data calibration, image extraction, image parameterization and event reconstruction. Its main focus is currently the analysis of simulated data but it has also been successfully applied for the analysis of data obtained with the first CTA prototype telescopes, such as the Large-Sized Telescope 1 (LST-1). pyirf is a library to calculate IACT instrument response functions, needed to obtain physics results like spectra and light curves, from the reconstructed event lists. Building on these two, protopipe is a prototype for the event reconstruction pipeline for CTA. Recent developments in these software packages will be presented.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, gamma-ray observatory, vent reconstruction pipeline, Large-Sized Telescope 1
Published in RUNG: 18.09.2023; Views: 701; Downloads: 5
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6.
Human Sacrifice: The Scapegoat in Partisan Photographs at the End of the Italian Civil War
Martina Caruso, 2019, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: This essay examines how Partisan self-representation in photography directly participated in the creation of a post-war humanist visual culture embedded in an idea of Christian redemption.
Keywords: Second World War, Italy, Civil War, Liberation, Partisan movement, resistance, fascism, antifascism, Allies, Nazis, photography, Christianity, Catholicism, Communism, reconstruction photography, martyrdom, masculinity, gender
Published in RUNG: 13.01.2023; Views: 1113; Downloads: 0
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