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Performance analysis of high-spectral-resolution lidar with/without laser seeding technique for measuring aerosol optical properties
Fengjia Gao, Fei Gao, Gaipan Li, Fan Yang, Li Wang, Song Yuehui, Dengxin Hua, Samo Stanič, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: High-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) is a powerful tool for aerosol measurements. With/without laser seeding technique in the transmitted laser, the HSRL can be distinguished as the single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) HSRL or the multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM) HSRL, and the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with periodic transmittance function can be used as the spectral discriminator in both the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL. To in-depth knowledge of the respective advantages of the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL for measuring aerosol optical properties, the working principle, optimal parameter setting, and detection performance of the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL are analyzed and discussed in detail, respectively. The working principle of the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL indicate that the effective transmittance of MZI is the important parameter of data retrieval, the main source of retrieval uncertainties, and the key factor of MZI optical path difference (OPD) settings. To ensure that the MZI can achieve the preferable separation for aerosol Mie scattering signals and molecular Rayleigh scattering signals, the optimal OPDs of MZI are set at 165 mm and 1000 mm in the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL from the aspects of the effective transmittance of MZI and the spectral discrimination ratio (SDR). Besides, to analyze the influence of frequency difference and divergence angle for the detection performance of HSRL, the effective transmittance of MZI and SDR are simulated and the results show that the MLM HSRL has higher requirements for the environmental parameters and the echo beam collimation than the SLM HSRL. Moreover, the HSRLs with SLM and MLM transmitted lasers are constructed in Xi'an for measuring aerosol optical properties. The preliminary measurement results show that the range square corrected signal (RSCS) of Rayleigh channel is smaller than that of Mie channel in both the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL, while the difference between RSCS of Rayleigh channel and RSCS of Mie channel in the SLM HSRL is larger than that in the MLM HSRL, and the detection range of the SLM HSRL is lower than that of the MLM HSRL.
Keywords: aerosol optical properties, high-spectral-resolution lidar, single-longitudinal-mode, multi-longitudinal-mode, spectral discrimination ratio
Published in RUNG: 28.02.2024; Views: 496; Downloads: 2
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Population-based improvement heuristic with local search for single-row facility layout problem
Soumen Atta, Priya Ranjan Sinha Mahapatra, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The Single-Row Facility Layout Problem (SRFLP) is a well-known combinatorial optimization problem. The objective of SRFLP is to find out the arrangement of facilities with given lengths on a line so that the weighted sum of the distances between all pairs of facilities is minimized. This problem is known to be NP-hard. Hence, a population-based improvement heuristic algorithm with local search is presented in this article to solve SRFLP. The proposed algorithm works well also for the Single-Row Equidistant Facility Layout Problem (SREFLP), where the length of each facility is equal. The computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm is checked with the instances of sizes ranging from 5 to 300 available in the literature for SRFLP and SREFLP. The obtained results are compared to those from different state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed algorithm achieves best known solutions to date for every instance considered in this article in reasonable computational time.
Keywords: Single-row facility layout problem (SRFLP), single-row equidistant facility layout problem (SREFLP), population-based heuristic, improvement heuristic, local search
Published in RUNG: 17.04.2023; Views: 916; Downloads: 0
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A new variant of the p-hub location problem with a ring backbone network for content placement in VoD services
Soumen Atta, Goutam Sen, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: In this article, the single allocation p-hub location problem (SApHLP) with a ring backbone network for content placement in VoD services is proposed. In VoD services, a large volume of digital data is kept as data segments in spatially distributed hubs. In SApHLP, each user is restricted to be allocated only to a single hub, and here hubs form a ring backbone network. SApHLP jointly addresses (i) the locations of hubs, (ii) the placement of segments to hubs, (iii) the allocation of users to hubs as per their demands, and (iv) the optimal paths to route the demands from users to hubs. We have introduced network flow-based 3-subscripted and path-based 4-subscripted MILP formulations of SApHLP. This article presents a novel discrete particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based approach where factoradic numbers are used to encode solution. It also incorporates three problem-specific solution refinement methods for faster convergence. In this article, SApHLP instances are generated from a real-world database of video files obtained from a movie recommender system. The benchmark solutions are generated using IBM’s CPLEX optimizer with default settings and Benders decomposition strategy. The performance of the proposed PSO is compared with the benchmark results produced by CPLEX.
Keywords: Single allocation p-hub location problem, Ring backbone network, VoD services, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Factoradics, CPLEX
Published in RUNG: 17.04.2023; Views: 884; Downloads: 0
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Order fluctuation induced tunable light emission from carbon nano system
Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu Swapna, Sankararaman S, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper reports the thermal-induced order fuctuations, in a carbon nanosystem with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized by the incomplete combustion of gingelly oil. The sample annealed at diferent temperatures (30–400 °C) is subjected to various morphological and spectroscopic characterizations. The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopic and thermogravimetric analyses reveal the CNTs in the sample. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) also confrms the formation of CNTs in the sample. The Raman spectrum and X-ray difraction pattern show the signature of multi-walled to single-walled CNT transformation and thus an order fuctuation on annealing. The quantum yield of the sample, measured by integrating sphere method, yields 46.15% at an emission wavelength of 575 nm. When the excitation wavelength is varied from 350 to 510 nm, the CIE coordinate moves from the white region to the yellowish-green region. The varying amount of CNTs in the soot, upon annealing is found to vary the luminescence emission from the sample. The study reveals the thermal-induced oscillatory order in carbon nanosystem with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) leading to tunable excitation/ thermal-dependent luminescence emission and thereby suggesting the possibility of converting the futile soot for fruitful applications in photonics and nanoelectronics.
Keywords: Carbon nanosystem, Single-walled carbon nanotubes, Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Raman spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis, CIE plot, Quantum yield, gingelly oil
Published in RUNG: 05.07.2022; Views: 1362; Downloads: 0
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Resolving the dilemma of Fe-N-C catalysts by the selective synthesis of tetrapyrrolic active sites via an imprinting strategy
Davide Menga, Jian Liang Low, Yan-Sheng Li, Iztok Arčon, Burak Koyutürk, Friedrich Wagner, Francisco Ruiz-Zepeda, Miran Gaberšček, Beate Paulus, Tim-Patrick Fellinger, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Combining the abundance and inexpensiveness of their constituent elements with their atomic dispersion, atomically dispersed Fe−N−C catalysts represent the most promising alternative to precious-metal-based materials in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Due to the high temperatures involved in their synthesis and the sensitivity of Fe ions toward carbothermal reduction, current synthetic methods are intrinsically limited in type and amount of the desired, catalytically active Fe− N4 sites, and high active site densities have been out of reach (dilemma of Fe−N−C catalysts). We herein identify a paradigm change in the synthesis of Fe−N−C catalysts arising from the developments of other M−N−C single-atom catalysts. Supported by DFT calculations we propose fundamental principles for the synthesis of M−N−C materials. We further exploit the proposed principles in a novel synthetic strategy to surpass the dilemma of Fe−N−C catalysts. The selective formation of tetrapyrrolic Zn−N4 sites in a tailor-made Zn−N−C material is utilized as an active-site imprint for the preparation of a corresponding Fe−N−C catalyst. By successive low- and high-temperature ion exchange reactions, we obtain a phase-pure Fe−N−C catalyst, with a high loading of atomically dispersed Fe (>3 wt %). Moreover, the catalyst is entirely composed of tetrapyrrolic Fe−N4 sites. The density of tetrapyrrolic Fe−N4 sites is more than six times as high as for previously reported tetrapyrrolic single-site Fe−N−C fuel cell catalysts
Keywords: Fe-N-C catalysts, selective synthesis, tetrapyrrolic active sites, EXAFS, XANES, single atom, DFT
Published in RUNG: 25.10.2021; Views: 2061; Downloads: 54
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Secondary organic aerosol formation from semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds and glyoxal : relevance of O/C as a tracer for aqueous multiphase chemistry
Eleanor M. Waxman, Katja Džepina, Barbara Ervens, Julia Lee-Taylor, Bernard Aumont, Jose L. Jimenez, Sasha Madronich, Rainer Volkamer, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: The role of aqueous multiphase chemistry in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) remains difficult to quantify. We investigate it here by testing the rapid formation of moderate oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) SOA during a case study in Mexico City. A novel laboratory-based glyoxal-SOA mechanism is applied to the field data, and explains why less gas-phase glyoxal mass is observed than predicted. Furthermore, we compare an explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism for SOA formation from semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) with empirical parameterizations of S/IVOC aging. The mechanism representing our current understanding of chemical kinetics of S/IVOC oxidation combined with traditional SOA sources and mixing of background SOA underestimates the observed O/C by a factor of two at noon. Inclusion of glyoxal-SOA with O/C of 1.5 brings O/C predictions within measurement uncertainty, suggesting that field observations can be reconciled on reasonable time scales using laboratory-based empirical relationships for aqueous chemistry.
Keywords: secondary organic aerosol, glyoxal, aqueous multiphase chemistry, oxygen-to-carbon ratio, single scattering albedo
Published in RUNG: 11.04.2021; Views: 2207; Downloads: 0
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Morphology and mixing state of aged soot particles at a remote marine free troposphere site : implications for optical properties
Swarup China, Barbara Scarnato, Robert C. Owen, Bo Zhang, MarianT. Ampadu, Sumit Kumar, Katja Džepina, Michael P. Dziobak, Paulo Fialho, Judith A. Perlinger, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The radiative properties of soot particles depend on their morphology and mixing state, but their evolution during transport is still elusive. Here we report observations from an electron microscopy analysis of individual particles transported in the free troposphere over long distances to the remote Pico Mountain Observatory in the Azores in the North Atlantic. Approximately 70% of the soot particles were highly compact and of those 26% were thinly coated. Discrete dipole approximation simulations indicate that this compaction results in an increase in soot single scattering albedo by a factor of <= 2.17. The top of the atmosphere direct radiative forcing is typically smaller for highly compact than mass-equivalent lacy soot. The forcing estimated using Mie theory is within 12% of the forcing estimated using the discrete dipole approximation for a high surface albedo, implying that Mie calculations may provide a reasonable approximation for compact soot above remote marine clouds.
Keywords: atmospheric aerosol, soot, long-range transport, free troposphere, single scattering albedo
Published in RUNG: 11.04.2021; Views: 2195; Downloads: 0
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Negative field‐dependent charge mobility in crystalline organic semiconductors with delocalized transport
Fei Tong, Andrey Kadashchuk, Egon Pavlica, Gvido Bratina, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Charge-carrier mobility has been investigated by time-of-flight (TOF) transient photocurrent in a lateral transport con- figuration in highly crystalline thin films of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno [3,2-b][1] benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) grown by a zone-casting alignment technique. High TOF mobility has been revealed that it is consistent with the delocalized nature of the charge transport in this material, yet it featured a positive temperature dependence at T ≥ 295 K. Moreover, the mobility was surprisingly found to decrease with electric field in the high-temperature region. These observations are not compat- ible with the conventional band-transport mechanism. We have elaborated an analytic model based on effective-medium approximation to rationalize the puzzling findings. The model considers the delocalized charge transport within the energy landscape formed by long-range transport band-edge variations in imperfect organic crystalline materials and accounts for the field-dependent effective dimensionality of charge transport percolative paths. The results of the model calculations are found to be in good agreement with experimental data.
Keywords: time of flight, organic semiconductors, single crystals
Published in RUNG: 07.05.2018; Views: 5390; Downloads: 0
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