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1.
Status and performance of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Joaquín De Jesús, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Malargüe, Argentina, is the largest facility for the detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and has been operating successfully for nearly 20 years. For its second phase of operation, the Observatory is undergoing a major upgrade, called AugerPrime, to increase its sensitivity to the primary mass. As part of the upgrade, the Underground Muon Detector is being deployed in the low-energy extension of the Surface Detector. It consists of an array of 30 m^2 plastic scintillator muon counters buried 2.3m underground in the vicinity of the water-Cherenkov detectors. This will allow a direct measurement of the muonic component of air showers in the energy range 1016.5 eV to 1019 eV, contributing significantly to the discrimination of the primary mass and to the testing of hadronic interaction models. In this contribution, the deployment status and performance of the Underground Muon Detector are presented.
Keywords: surface detector, Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, underground muon detector
Published in RUNG: 22.01.2024; Views: 349; Downloads: 5
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2.
Calibration of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Aab, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: To obtain direct measurements of the muon content of extensive air showers with energy above 10[sup]16.5 eV, the Pierre Auger Observatory is currently being equipped with an underground muon detector (UMD), consisting of 219 10 m[sup]2-modules, each segmented into 64 scintillators coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Direct access to the shower muon content allows for the study of both of the composition of primary cosmic rays and of high-energy hadronic interactions in the forward direction. As the muon density can vary between tens of muons per m[sup]2 close to the intersection of the shower axis with the ground to much less than one per m[sup]2 when far away, the necessary broad dynamic range is achieved by the simultaneous implementation of two acquisition modes in the read-out electronics: the binary mode, tuned to count single muons, and the ADC mode, suited to measure a high number of them. In this work, we present the end-to-end calibration of the muon detector modules: first, the SiPMs are calibrated by means of the binary channel, and then, the ADC channel is calibrated using atmospheric muons, detected in parallel to the shower data acquisition. The laboratory and field measurements performed to develop the implementation of the full calibration chain of both binary and ADC channels are presented and discussed. The calibration procedure is reliable to work with the high amount of channels in the UMD, which will be operated continuously, in changing environmental conditions, for several years.
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, extensive air showers (EAS), EAS muonic component, Pierre Auger Observatory, underground muon detector, detector calibration
Published in RUNG: 14.04.2021; Views: 2681; Downloads: 139
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