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1.
Najvišje energije v vesolju
mIHA Živec, other performed works

Abstract: Zgodovinski pregled in trenutno stanje astrofizike visokih energij.
Keywords: nevtrini, kozmični delci, žarki gama, observatorij Pierre Auger, polje teleskopov Čerenkova
Published in RUNG: 11.12.2023; Views: 628; Downloads: 0
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2.
Characterization of atmospheric properties over the Cherenkov Telescope Array at La Palma
Miha Živec, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) systems are used in high-energy astrophysics to detect and study gamma-ray sources in the universe. These telescopes measure properties of cosmic gamma rays using Cherenkov radiation emitted by secondary particles produced after interacting with the Earth’s atmosphere. Atmospheric monitoring is crucial for the proper operation of IACT systems. A number of remote sensing and in situ methods are used to understand and correct the effects of the atmosphere on the propagation of Cherenkov radiation from its origin to the telescope. Failure to do so greatly decreases IACT performance, particularly, their energy resolution and threshold. Lidar systems can be used to measure atmospheric optical depth profiles, which are essential for IACT calibration. The main aim of this thesis is to demonstrate that a prototype lidar for the north-ern site of the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO), which is a next-generation IACT now under construction, has hardware and software capabilities that would lead to the construction of CTAO Raman lidar. Due to specific require-ments of the CTAO, a Raman lidar, which can provide better atmospheric parameter accuracy, will be used for the first time in an IACT system. In 2021-2022 the BRL was deployed to the future CTAO-North site at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory, La Palma, for testing in its actual operating conditions. During a year and a half long test period, it underwent a number of tests, including manual and remote operation under various environmental conditions. These included hot summers, cold winters, rain, snow, ice, and strong winds, but also some more exotic events, such as desert sand intrusions (Calima) and volcanic eruptions. The latter two are presented in this work as test cases for atmospheric characterization. Since the main goal of a CTAO lidar is the optical depth measurements, the BRL does not have the full set of features for aerosol characterization. While it can yield the ˚Angstr¨om exponent and lidar ratio, it does not provide depolarization informa-tion, which is one of the key components for aerosol typing. As the atmosphere at La Palma was found to be more complex than initially anticipated, we present the benefits of including depolarization capability by using a conceptually similar Raman lidar system specifically designed for aerosol characterization. We present the results of a campaign focused on the determination of bioaerosol capabilities to act as cloud condensation nuclei and ice-nucleating particles in mixed-phase clouds, where depo-larization information was used to determine the thermodynamic phase of the cloud.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, Raman Lidar, atmospheric optical depth, aerosol characterization, Cumbre Vieja, Calima
Published in RUNG: 23.10.2023; Views: 958; Downloads: 33
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3.
Performance study update of observations in divergent mode for the Cherenkov Telescope Array
A. Donini, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Due to the limited field of view (FoV) of Cherenkov telescopes, the time needed to achieve target sensitivity for surveys of the extragalactic and Galactic sky is large. To optimize the time spent to perform such surveys, a so-called “divergent mode” of the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO) was proposed as an alternative observation strategy to the traditional parallel pointing. In the divergent mode, each telescope points to a position in the sky that is slightly offset, in the outward direction, from the original center of the field of view. This bring the advantage of increasing the total instantaneous arrays’ FoV. From an enlarged field of view also benefits the search for very-high-energy transient sources, making it possible to cover large sky regions in follow-up observations, or to quickly cover the probability sky map in case of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB), Gravitational Waves (GW), and other transient events. In this contribution, we present the proposed implementation of the divergent pointing mode and its first preliminary performance estimation for the southern CTAO array.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTAO, divergent mode, very-high-energy transient sources
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 854; Downloads: 5
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4.
Expected exclusion limits to TeV dark matter from the perseus cluster with the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Rémi Adam, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Clusters of galaxies are the largest gravitationally-bound structures in the Universe. They are composed of galaxies and gas (approximately 15% of the total mass) mostly dark matter (DM, accounts up to 85% of the total mass). If the DM is composed of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), galaxy clusters represent one of the best targets to search for gamma-ray signals induced by the decay of WIMPs, with masses around the TeV scale. Due to its sensitivity and energy range of operation (from 20 GeV to 300 TeV), the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory has a unique opportunity to test WIMPs with masses close to the unitarity limit. This will complement the searches for DM from other gamma-ray observatories as well as direct and collider experiments. The CTA Observatory is planning to search for gamma-ray emission, either its origin may be cosmic-ray (CR) or DM related, in the Perseus galaxy cluster during the first years of operation. In this poster, we will present the software created to perform the analysis using the ctools software and the corresponding results.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, dark matter, standard model, dwarf spheroidal galaxies
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 848; Downloads: 4
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5.
Sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to the gamma-ray emission from neutrino sources detected by IceCube
Olga Sergijenko, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Gamma-ray observations of the astrophysical neutrino sources are fundamentally important for understanding the underlying neutrino production mechanism. We investigate the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) ability to detect the very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray counterparts to the neutrino-emitting Active Galaxies. The CTA performance under different configurations and array layouts is computed based on the neutrino and gamma-ray simulations of steady and transient types of sources, assuming that the neutrino events are detected with the IceCube neutrino telescope. The CTA detection probability is calculated for both CTA sites taking into account the visibility constraints. We find that, under optimal observing conditions, CTA could observe the VHE gamma-ray emission from at least 3 neutrino events per year.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, IceCube neutrino telescope, neutrinos, neutrino sources
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 947; Downloads: 6
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6.
Variability studies of active galactic nuclei from the long-term monitoring program with the Cherenkov Telescope Array
G. Grolleron, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Blazars are active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a relativistic jet oriented toward the observer. This jet is composed of accelerated particles which can display emission over the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Spectral variability has been observed on short- and long-time scales in AGN, with a power spectral density (PSD) that can show a break at frequencies below the well-known red-noise process. This break frequency in the PSD has been observed in X-rays to scale with the accretion regime and the mass of the central black hole. It is expected that a break could also be seen in the very-high-energy gamma rays, but constraining the shape of the PSD in these wavelengths has not been possible with the current instruments. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be more sensitive by a factor of five to ten depending on energy than the current generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, therefore it will be possible with CTA to reconstruct the PSD with a high accuracy, bringing new information about AGN variability. In this work, we focus on the AGN long-term monitoring program planned with CTA. The program is proposed to begin with early-start observing campaigns with CTA precursors. This would allow us to probe longer time scales on the AGN PSD.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, dark matter, standard model, dwarf spheroidal galaxies
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 1008; Downloads: 7
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7.
Pybkgmodel - a background modelling toolbox for the CTA
Marcel C. Strzys, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Despite the advancement in background rejection techniques, observation of the very-high-energy gamma-ray sky by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) are subject to an irreducible background from gamma-like hadron- or electron-induced air showers. The determination of this residual background is crucial for accurate spectral and spatial measurements. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will become the next generation of IACTs. To unveil its full potential, the improved reconstruction performance of CTA needs to be coupled with a reliable background estimate across the entire field of view. This may become especially important in the case of the planned surveys of large areas of the sky. In this contribution we will present pybkgmodel, an open-source python software package de-veloped for CTA. It aims at providing in a consistent way the various background modelling methods, based on the experience from current IACTs such as H.E.S.S, MAGIC, and VERITAS. It is designed as a toolbox allowing a user to easily choose the optimal reconstruction approach for various target regions or a combination of several algorithms. We will introduce the design of the package as well as demonstrate its functionality using data for the CTA Large-Sized Telescope prototype (LST-1).
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, dark matter, standard model, dwarf spheroidal galaxies
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 899; Downloads: 6
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8.
Dark matter searches in dwarf spheroidal galaxies with the Cherenkov Telescope Array
F. G. Saturni, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Dark matter (DM) is one of the major components in the Universe. However, at present its existence is still only inferred through indirect astronomical observations. DM particles can annihilate or decay, producing final-state Standard Model pairs that subsequently annihilate into high-energy �-rays. The dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Milky Way DM halo have long been considered optimal targets to search for annihilating DM signatures in GeV-to-TeV �-ray spectra due to their high DM densities (hence high astrophysical factors), as well as the expected absence of intrinsic �-ray emission of astrophysical origin. For such targets, it is important to compute the amount of DM in their halos in a consistent way to optimize the �-ray data analysis. Such estimates directly affect the observability of DM signals in dSphs, as well as the DM constraints that can be derived in case of null detection. In this contribution, we present the results on the sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) for DM annihilation and decay searches using planned observations of the Milky Way dSphs. We select the most promising targets among all presently known dwarf satellites, providing new determinations of their expected DM signal. This study shows an improvement of approximately an order of magnitude in sensitivity compared to current searches in similar targets. We also discuss the results in terms of cuspy and cored DM models, and investigate the sensitivity obtained by the combination of observations from different dSphs. Finally, we explore the optimal strategies for CTA observations of dSphs.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, dark matter, standard model, dwarf spheroidal galaxies
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 950; Downloads: 4
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9.
Sensitivity to keV-MeV dark matter from cosmic-ray scattering with current and the upcoming ground-based arrays CTA and SWGO
Igor Reis, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: A wealth of astrophysical and cosmological observational evidence shows that the matter content of the universe is made of about 85% of non-baryonic dark matter. Huge experimental efforts have been deployed to look for the direct detection of dark matter via their scattering on target nucleons, their production in colliders, and their indirect detection via their annihilation products. Inelastic scattering of high-energy cosmic rays off dark matter particles populating the Milky Way halo would produce secondary gamma rays in the final state from the decay of the neutral pions produced in such interactions, providing a new avenue to probe dark matter properties. We compute here the sensitivity for H.E.S.S.-like observatory, a current-generation ground-based Cherenkov telescopes, to the expected gamma-ray flux from collisions of Galactic cosmic rays and dark matter in the center of the Milky Way. We also derive sensitivity prospects for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and Southern Wide-field Gamma-ray Observatory (SWGO). The expected sensitivity allows us to probe a poorly-constrained range of dark matter masses so far, ranging from keV to sub-GeV, and provide complementary constraints on the dark matter-proton scattering cross section traditionally probed by deep underground direct dark matter experiments.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, very-high-energy gamma-ray astroparticle physics, instrument response functions, machine learning
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 867; Downloads: 6
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10.
Detecting and characterizing pulsar halos with the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory
Christopher Eckner, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The recently identified source class of pulsar halos may be populated and bright enough at TeV energies to constitute a large fraction of the sources that will be observed with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), especially in the context of the planned Galactic Plane Survey (GPS). In this study, we examine the prospects offered by CTA for the detection and characterization of such objects. CTA will cover energies from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, bridging the ranges already probed with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory, and will also have a better angular resolution than the latter instruments, thus providing a complementary look at the phenomenon. From simple models for individual pulsar halos and their population in the Milky Way, we examine under which conditions such sources can be detected and studied from the GPS observations. In the framework of a full spatial-spectral likelihood analysis, using the most recent estimates for the instrument response function and prototypes for the science tools, we derive the spectral and morphological sensitivity of the CTA GPS to the specific intensity distribution of pulsar halos. From these, we quantify the physical parameters for which pulsar halos can be detected, identified, and characterized, and what fraction of the Galactic population could be accessible. We also discuss the effect of interstellar emission and data analysis systematics on these prospects.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, very-high-energy gamma-ray astroparticle physics, instrument response functions, machine learning
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 821; Downloads: 7
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