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1.
A method for quantification of mineral dust in air based on optical absorption of particles concentrated by a virtual impactor and a device performing the said method : SI3783336 (T1), 2024-02-29
Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Iasonas Stavroulas, Spiros Bezantakos, Michael Pikridas, Florin Unga, Jean Sciare, 2024, patent

Abstract: The present invention belongs to the field of devices and methods for measurement of particle concentration, more precisely to the field of devices and methods for quantification of particles based on their physical characteristics, especially with the use of optical means. The invention relates to a method for determination of ambient mineral dust concentration based on optical absorption of particles concentrated by a virtual impactor as well as a device performing the said method. The method comprises the following steps:- Sampling air samples with particle size smaller than 1 µm (PM1) and sampling air samples with particle size up to 10 µm;- Concentrating the samples with particle sizes up to 10 µm with a virtual impactor;- Measuring optical absorption of collected samples at least one wavelength from UV to IR spectre, preferably from 370 to 950 nm, most preferably at 370 nm;- Subtracting the absorption of the samples with particle size smaller than 1 µm from the absorption of the sample concentrated by the virtual impactor.
Keywords: dust, black carbon, aerosols
Published in RUNG: 24.04.2024; Views: 817; Downloads: 2
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2.
Comparing black-carbon- and aerosol-absorption-measuring instruments : a new system using lab-generated soot coated with controlled amounts of secondary organic matter
Daniel M. Kalbermatter, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Matthias Oscity, Ernest Weingartner, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Konstantina Vasilatou, 2022, complete scientific database of research data

Abstract: A preprint of the publication can be found here: AMTD - Response of black carbon and aerosol absorption measuring instruments to laboratory-generated soot coated with controlled amounts of secondary organic matter (copernicus.org) (doi.org/10.5194/amt-2021-214). The files correspond to the raw data sets used for Figures 3 and 4 of the aforementioned publication. The date and start/stop time of the measurements are listed in the file "overview_measurements".
Keywords: aerosol absorption coefficient, black carbon, absorption enhancement
Published in RUNG: 19.03.2024; Views: 474; Downloads: 2
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3.
Aerosol light extinction coefficient closure : comparison of airborne in-situ measurements with LIDAR measurements during JATAC/CAVA-AW 2021/2022 campaigns
Marija Bervida, Jesús Yus-Díez, Luka Drinovec, Uroš Jagodič, Blaž Žibert, Matevž Lenarčič, Griša Močnik, 2024, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The JATAC campaign in September 2021 and September 2022 on and above Cape Verde Islands resulted in a large in-situ and remote measurement dataset. Its main objective was the calibration and validation of the ESA satellite Aeolus ALADIN Lidar. The campaign also featured secondary scientific objectives related to climate change. Constraining remote sensing measurements with those provided by in-situ instrumentation is crucial for proper characterization and accurate description of the 3-D structure of the atmosphere.We present the results performed with an instrumented light aircraft (Advantic WT-10) set-up for in-situ aerosol measurements. Twenty-seven flights were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean at altitudes around and above 3000 m above sea level during intense dust transport events. Simultaneous measurements with PollyXT, and eVe ground-based lidars took place, determining the vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties, which were also used to plan the flights.The aerosol light extinction coefficient was obtained at three different wavelengths as a combination of the absorption coefficients determined using Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAP) and the scattering coefficients measured with an Ecotech Aurora 4000 nephelometer, which also measured the backscatter fraction. The particle size distributions above 0.3 µm diameter were measured with two Grimm 11-D Optical Particle Size Spectrometers (OPSS). Moreover, CO2 concentration, temperature, aircraft GPS position and altitude, air and ground speed were also measured.We compare the in-situ aircraft measurements of the aerosol extinction coefficients with the AEOLUS lidar derived extinction coefficients, as well as with the ground-based eVe and PollyXT lidar extinction coefficients when measurements overlapped in space and time. The comparison was performed at the closest available wavelengths, with in-situ measurements inter/extrapolated to those of the lidar systems.In general we find an underestimation of the extinction coefficient obtained by lidars compared to the in-situ extinction coefficient. The slopes of regression lines of ground-based lidars, PollyXT and eVe, against the in-situ measurements are characterised by values ranging from 0.61 to 0.7 and R2 between 0.71 and 0.89. Comparison further suggests better agreement between Aeolus ALADIN lidar and the in-situ measurements. Relationship described by fitting the Aeolus to in-situ data is characterised by the slope value 0.76 and R2 of 0.8.The causes of better agreement of the in-situ measurements with the ALADIN lidar than with the surface based ones are being studied, with several reasons being considered: a) lower spatial and temporal resolution which homogenize the area of study in comparison with the very fine vertical variations of the aerosols, which can be detected with the surface-based measurements, impairing the comparison with highly vertically resolved ground-lidar measurements while not affecting averaged space-borne lidar; b) the effect of lower clouds/ Saharan air layers on the attenuation of the lidar signal.The presented results show the importance of the comparison of the remote with in-situ measurements for the support of the research on evolution, dynamics, and predictability of tropical weather systems and provide input into and verification of the climate models.
Keywords: LIDAR, Aeolus, ALADIN, in-situ measurements, aerosol absorption, aerosol extinction, airborne measurements
Published in RUNG: 18.03.2024; Views: 446; Downloads: 6
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4.
Aerosol dust absorption : measurements with a reference instrument (PTAAM-2[lambda]) and impact on the climate as measured in airborne JATAC/CAVA-AW 2021/2022 campaigns
Jesús Yus-Díez, Luka Drinovec, Marija Bervida, Uroš Jagodič, Blaž Žibert, Griša Močnik, 2024, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Aerosol absorption coefficient measurements classically feature a very large uncertainty, especially given the absence of a reference method. The most used approach using filter-photometers is by measuring the attenuation of light through a filter where aerosols are being deposited. This presents several artifacts, with cross-sensitivity to scattering being most important at high single scattering albedo with the error exceeding 100%. We present lab campaign results where we have resuspended dust samples from different mid-latitude desert regions and measured the dust absorption and scattering coefficients, their mass concentration and the particle size distribution. The absorption coefficients were measured with two types of filter photometers: a Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAP) and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer (AE33). The  dual-wavelength photo-thermal interferometer (PTAAM-2λ) was employed as the reference. Scattering coefficients were measured with an Ecotech Aurora 4000 nephelometer. The mass concentration was obtained after the weighting of filters before and after the sampling, and the particle size distribution (PSD) was measured by means of optical particle counters (Grimm 11-D).Measurements of the scattering with the nephelometer and absorption with the PTAAM-2λ we obtained the filter photometer multiple scattering parameter and cross-sensitivity to scattering as a function of the different sample properties. Moreover, by determining the mass concentration and the absorption coefficients of the samples, we derived the mass absorption cross-sections of the different dust samples, which can be linked to their size distribution as well as to their mineralogical composition.The focus of the JATAC campaign in September 2021 and September 2022 on and above Cape Verde Islands was on the calibration/validation of the ESA Aeolus satellite ALADIN lidar, however, the campaign also featured secondary scientific climate-change objectives. As part of this campaign, a light aircraft was set-up for in-situ aerosol measurements. Several flights were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean up to and above 3000 m above sea level during intense dust transport events. The aircraft was instrumented to determine the absorption coefficients using a pair of Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAPs) measuring in the fine and coarse fractions separately, with parallel measurements of size distributions in these size fractions using two Grimm 11-D Optical Particle Size Spectrometers (OPSS). In addition, we performed measurements of the total and diffuse solar irradiance with a DeltaT SPN1 pyranometer.The combination of the absorption and PSD with source identification techniques enabled the separation of the contributions to  absorption by dust and black carbon. The atmospheric heating rate of these two contributions was determined by adding the irradiance measurements. Therefore, the integration of the results from the Using laboratory resuspension experiments  to interpret the airborne measurements is of great relevance for the determination  of the radiative effect of the Saharan Aerosol Layer as measured over the tropical Atlantic ocean.
Keywords: black carbon, mineral dust, Saharan dust, atmospheric heating rate, climate change, airborne measurements
Published in RUNG: 18.03.2024; Views: 491; Downloads: 2
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5.
Optical properties and simple forcing efficiency of the organic aerosols and black carbon emitted by residential wood burning in rural Central Europe
Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Martin Rigler, Matej Ogrin, Baseerat Romshoo, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Abstract. Recent years have seen an increase in the use of wood for energy production of over 30 %, and this trend is expected to continue due to the current energy crisis and geopolitical instability. At present, residential wood burning (RWB) is one of the most important sources of organic aerosols (OA) and black carbon (BC). While BC is recognized for its large light absorption cross-section, the role of OA in light absorption is still under evaluation due to their heterogeneous composition and source-dependent optical properties. Studies that characterize wood-burning aerosol emissions in Europe typically focus on urban and background sites and only cover BC properties. However, RWB is more prevalent in rural areas, and the present scenario indicates that an improved understanding of the RWB aerosol optical properties and their subsequent connection to climate impacts is necessary for rural areas. We have characterized atmospheric aerosol particles from a central European rural site during wintertime in the village of Retje in Loški Potok, Slovenia, from 01.12.2017 to 07.03.2018. The village experienced extremely high aerosol concentrations produced by RWB and near-ground temperature inversion. The isolated location of the site and the substantial local emissions made it an ideal laboratory-like place for characterizing RWB aerosols with low influence from non-RWB sources under ambient conditions. The mean mass concentrations of OA and BC were 34.8 µg m-3 (max = 271.8 µg m-3) and 3.1 µg m-3 (max = 24.3 µg m-3), respectively. The mean total particle number concentration (10–600 nm) was 9.9 x 103 particles cm-3 (max = 53.5 x 103 particles cm-3). The mean total light absorption coefficient at 370 nm and 880 nm measured by an Aethalometer AE33 were 122.8 Mm-1 and 15.3 Mm-1 and had maximum values of 1103.9 Mm-1 and 179.1 Mm-1, respectively. The aerosol concentrations and absorption coefficients measured during the campaign in Loški Potok were significantly larger than those reported values for several urban areas in the region with larger populations and extent of aerosol sources. Here, considerable contributions from brown carbon (BrC) to the total light absorption were identified, reaching up to 60 % and 48 % in the near UV (370 nm) and blue (470 nm) wavelengths. These contributions are up to three times higher than values reported for other sites impacted by wood-burning emissions. The calculated mass absorption cross-section and the absorption Ångström exponent for RWB OA were MACOA, 370 nm= 2.4 m2 g-1, and AAEBrC, 370–590 nm= 3.9, respectively. Simple forcing efficiency (SFE) calculations were performed as a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the climate impact of the RWB aerosols produced at the study site by integrating the optical properties measured during the campaign. The SFE results show a considerable forcing capacity from the local RWB aerosols, with a high sensitivity to OA absorption properties and a more substantial impact over bright surfaces like snow, typical during the coldest season with higher OA emissions from RWB. Our study's results are highly significant regarding air pollution, optical properties, and climate impact. The findings suggest that there may be an underestimation of RWB emissions in rural Europe and that further investigation is necessary.
Keywords: wood-burning aerosols, optical characterization, black carbon, rural areas
Published in RUNG: 10.01.2024; Views: 667; Downloads: 6
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6.
Airborne in-situ measurements during JATAC/CAVA-AW 2021/2022 campaigns : first climate-relevant results
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marija Bervida, Luka Drinovec, Blaž Žibert, Matevž Lenarčič, Griša Močnik, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The JATAC campaign in September 2021 and September 2022 on and above Cape Verde Islands have resulted in a large dataset of in-situ and remote measurements. In addition to the calibration/validation of the ESA’s Aeolus ALADIN during the campaign, the campaign also featured secondary scientific objectives related to climate change. The atmosphere above the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of West Africa is ideal for the study of the Saharan Aerosol layer (SAL), the long-range transport of dust, and the regional influence of SAL aerosols on the climate. We have instrumented a light aircraft (Advantic WT-10) with instrumentation for the in-situ aerosol characterization. Ten flights were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean up to over 3000 m above sea level during two intense dust transport events. PollyXT, and EvE lidars were deployed at the Ocean Science Center, measuring the vertical optical properties of aerosols and were also used to plan the flights. The particle light absorption coefficient was determined at three different wavelengths with Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAP). They were calibrated with the dual wavelength photo-thermal interferometric measurement of the aerosol light-absorption coefficient in the laboratory. The particle size distributions above 0.3 µm diameter were measured with two Grimm 11-D Optical Particle Size Spectrometers (OPSS). These measurements were conducted separately for the fine aerosol fraction and the enriched coarse fraction using an isokinetic inlet and a pseudo-virtual impactor, respectively. The aerosol light scattering and backscattering coefficients were measured with an Ecotech Aurora 4000 nephelometer. The instrument used a separate isokinetic inlet and was calibrated prior to and its calibration validated after the campaign with CO2. We have measured the total and diffuse solar irradiance with a DeltaT SPN1 pyranometer. CO2 concentration, temperature, aircraft GPS position altitude, air and ground speed were also measured. The in-situ single-scattering albedo Angstrom exponent and the lidar depolarization ratio will be compared as two independent parameters indicating the presence of Saharan dust. We will show differences between homogeneous Saharan dust layer in space (horizontally and vertically) and time and events featuring strong horizontal gradients in aerosol composition and concentration, and layering in the vertical direction. These layers often less than 100 m thick, separated by layers of air with no dust. Complex mixtures of aerosols in the outflow of Saharan dust over the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics will be characterized. We will show the in-situ atmospheric heating/cooling rate and provide insight into the regional and local effects of this heating of the dust layers. These measurements will support of the research on evolution, dynamics, and predictability of tropical weather systems and provide input into and verification of the climate models.
Keywords: mineral dust, climate change, heating rate, black carbon, Aeolus satellite, airborne measurements
Published in RUNG: 21.12.2023; Views: 718; Downloads: 4
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7.
JATAC/CAVA-AW Aeolus Cal/Val airborne campaign dataset
Jesús Yus-Díez, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Marija Bervida, Blaž Žibert, Uroš Jagodič, Matevž Lenarčič, complete scientific database of research data

Abstract: Light aircraft (WT10 - experimental) with position and windspeed variables provided by onboard GPS, as well as additional meteorological sensors. The aircraft was mounted with a: a sunshine pyranometer type SPN1 (Delta-T Devices Ltd), a polar integrating nephelometer AURORA 4000 (Ecotech Pty Ltd), and had a dual sampling line aircraft for measurements at the fine and coarse fraction of the absorption by two Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAPS, by Haze Instruments d.o.o.) and the particle size distribution by two optical particle counters (OPC, model 11D, GRIMM Technologies). The pyranometer provides measurements of the global, direct and diffuse irradiance for a radiation spectrum range between 400 and 2700nm with a 1s time resolution. The polar integrating nephelometer measures the scattering coefficients of particles at three wavelengths (450, 525 and 635 nm) and multiple angles (two selected for the campaign: 0, 90deg) with a 5s time resolution. The CLAP photometers measure the absorption coefficient by aerosol particles at three wavelengths (467, 529 and 653 nm) with a 1s time resolution. The OPC measurements provide the number and mass concentration of aerosol particles for 31 bins in the size range between 0.253 and 35.15 micrometers with a 6s time resolution. The 2021 and 2022 campaigns are found at: http://www.worldgreenflight.com/glwf.php#to-2021 http://www.worldgreenflight.com/glwf.php#to-2022-jatac
Keywords: Aeolus satellite, Saharan dust, aerosol, calibration, validation
Published in RUNG: 27.09.2023; Views: 943; Downloads: 7
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8.
9.
Investigation of Aerosol Types and Vertical Distributions Using Polarization Raman Lidar over Vipava Valley
Longlong Wang, Marija Bervida, Samo Stanič, Klemen Bergant, Asta Gregorič, Luka Drinovec, Zhenping Yin, Yang Yi, Detlef Müller, Xuan Wang, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Aerosol direct radiative forcing is strongly dependent on aerosol distributions and aerosol types. A detailed understanding of such information is still missing at the Alpine region, which currently undergoes amplified climate warming. Our goal was to study the vertical variability of aerosol types within and above the Vipava valley (45.87◦ N, 13.90◦ E, 125 m a.s.l.) to reveal the vertical impact of each particular aerosol type on this region, a representative complex terrain in the Alpine region which often suffers from air pollution in the wintertime. This investigation was performed using the entire dataset of a dual-wavelength polarization Raman lidar system, which covers 33 nights from September to December 2017. The lidar provides measurements from midnight to early morning (typically from 00:00 to 06:00 CET) to provide aerosol-type dependent properties, which include particle linear depolarization ratio, lidar ratio at 355 nm and the aerosol backscatter Ångström exponent between 355 nm and 1064 nm. These aerosol properties were compared with similar studies, and the aerosol types were identified by the measured aerosol optical properties. Primary anthropogenic aerosols within the valley are mainly emitted from two sources: individual domestic heating systems, which mostly use biomass fuel, and traffic emissions. Natural aerosols, such as mineral dust and sea salt, are mostly transported over large distances. A mixture of two or more aerosol types was generally found. The aerosol characterization and statistical properties of vertical aerosol distributions were performed up to 3 km.
Keywords: valley air pollution, aerosol vertical distributions, lidar remote sensing, aerosol identification
Published in RUNG: 21.07.2022; Views: 1508; Downloads: 28
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10.
A dual-wavelength photothermal aerosol absorption monitor : design, calibration and performance
Luka Drinovec, Uroš Jagodič, Luka Pirker, Miha Škarabot, Mario Kurtjak, Kristijan Vidović, Luca Ferrero, Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Ernest Weingartner, Daniel M. Kalbermatter, Konstantina Vasilatou, Griša Močnik, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: There exists a lack of aerosol absorption measurement techniques with low uncertainties and without artefacts. We have developed the two-wavelength Photothermal Aerosol Absorption Monitor (PTAAM-2λ), which measures the aerosol absorption coefficient at 532 and 1064 nm. Here we describe its design, calibration and mode of operation and evaluate its applicability, limits and uncertainties. The 532 nm channel was calibrated with ∼ 1 µmol mol−1 NO2, whereas the 1064 nm channel was calibrated using measured size distribution spectra of nigrosin particles and a Mie calculation. Since the aerosolized nigrosin used for calibration was dry, we determined the imaginary part of the refractive index of nigrosin from the absorbance measurements on solid thin film samples. The obtained refractive index differed considerably from the one determined using aqueous nigrosin solution. PTAAM-2λ has no scattering artefact and features very low uncertainties: 4 % and 6 % for the absorption coefficient at 532 and 1064 nm, respectively, and 9 % for the absorption Ångström exponent. The artefact-free nature of the measurement method allowed us to investigate the artefacts of filter photometers. Both the Aethalometer AE33 and CLAP suffer from cross-sensitivity to scattering – this scattering artefact is most pronounced for particles smaller than 70 nm. We observed a strong dependence of the filter multiple scattering parameter on the particle size in the 100–500 nm range. The results from the winter ambient campaign in Ljubljana showed similar multiple scattering parameter values for ambient aerosols and laboratory experiments. The spectral dependence of this parameter resulted in AE33 reporting the absorption Ångström exponent for different soot samples with values biased 0.23–0.35 higher than the PTAAM-2λ measurement. Photothermal interferometry is a promising method for reference aerosol absorption measurements.
Keywords: aerosol absorption, calibration, black carbon
Published in RUNG: 28.06.2022; Views: 1315; Downloads: 25
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