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Thermal Lensing of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Solutions as Heat-Transfer Nanofluids
SANKARARAMAN SANKARANARAYANA IYER, CABRERA HUMBERTO, RAJ VIMAL, Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper unwraps nanofluids’ particle dynamics with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in base fluids such as acetone, water, and ethylene glycol. Having confirmed the morphology and structure of the MWCNTs by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopic analyses, the nanofluids are prepared in three different concentrations. The nonzero absorbance at the laser wavelength, revealed through the UV−visible spectrum, makes the thermal diffusivity study of the sample by the sensitive nondestructive single beam thermal lens (TL) technique possible. The TL signal analysis by time series and fractal techniques divulges the complex particle dynamics, through phase portrait, sample entropy, fractal dimension, and Hurst exponent. The study unveils the effect of the amount of nanoparticles and the viscosity of the medium on thermal diffusivity and particle dynamics. The observed inverse relation between thermal diffusivity and viscosity is in good agreement with the Sankar−Swapna model. The complexity of particle dynamics in MWCNT nanofluids reflected through sample entropy, and fractal dimension shows an inverse relation to the base fluid’s viscosity. This paper investigates the role of viscosity of the base fluid on particle dynamics and thermal diffusivity of the nanofluid to explore its applicability in various thermal systems, thereby suggesting a method to tune the sample entropy through proper selection of base fluid.
Found in: osebi
Summary of found: ...and viscosity is in good agreement with the Sankar− Swapna model. The complexity of particle dynamics in...
Keywords: MWCNT, thermal lens, fractals, nonlinear time series, phase portrait, sample entropy
Published: 28.06.2022; Views: 309; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (3,59 MB)

Development of prototype of electronic speckle interferometry based spirometer
SANKARARAMAN SANKARANARAYANA IYER, RAJ VIMAL, SREEJYOTHI S, KUMAR SUNIL, KUMAR ARUN, Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper reports the design, construction, and calibration of the prototype of a spirometer based on electronic speckle interferometry (ESPI). The conventional ESPI setup is modified by incorporating a DNM (Diaphragm-Nozzle-Mouthpiece) module comprising a metallic diaphragm, regulated airflow channel, and a mouthpiece. The exhaled air after a deep breathe is channelled to the DNM module where the diaphragm gets deformed. From the circular fringe pattern obtained by subtracting the speckled images before and after deformation of the metallic diaphragm, the radius of curvature (R) due to deformation is calculated using the principle of Newton’s rings. The value of R and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) from the standard spirometer reading are correlated. From the 640 observations spread over the range 100 - 500 L/min in the standard spirometer, an empirical relation is set in terms of R from the scatter plot. The ESPI spirometer (ESPIS) is validated by determining the value of R corresponding to a particular PEFR from the empirical relation and also from the standard spirometer. The PEFR calculated from ESPIS matches well with the standard spirometer reading, which suggests that the system designed and constructed can be used for biomedical applications for assessing lungs’ efficiency.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Speckle, Spirometer, DNM module, ESPIS, Peak expiratory flow rate
Published: 28.06.2022; Views: 228; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,38 MB)

Unravelling the potential of phase portrait in the auscultation of mitral valve dysfunction
SANKARARAMAN SANKARANARAYANA IYER, RAJ VIMAL, RENJINI A, SREEJYOTHI S, Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The manuscript elucidates the potential of phase portrait, fast Fourier transform, wavelet, and time-series analyses of the heart murmur (HM) of normal (healthy) and mitral regurgitation (MR) in the diagnosis of valve-related cardiovascular diseases. The temporal evolution study of phase portrait and the entropy analyses of HM unveil the valve dysfunctioninduced haemodynamics. A tenfold increase in sample entropy in MR from that of normal indicates the valve dysfunction. The occurrence of a large number of frequency components between lub and dub in MR, compared to the normal, is substantiated through the spectral analyses. The machine learning techniques, K-nearest neighbour, support vector machine, and principal component analyses give 100% predictive accuracy. Thus, the study suggests a surrogate method of auscultation of HM that can be employed cost-effectively in rural health centres.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: phase portrait, auscultation, mitral valve dysfunction, heart murmur, nonlinear time series analysis
Published: 28.06.2022; Views: 239; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,02 MB)

Nonlinear time series and principal component analyses: Potential diagnostic tools for COVID-19 auscultation
SANKARARMAN S, SREEJYOTHI S, RENJINI A, RAJ VIMAL, Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The development of novel digital auscultation techniques has become highly significant in the context of the outburst of the pandemic COVID 19. The present work reports the spectral, nonlinear time series, fractal, and complexity analysis of vesicular (VB) and bronchial (BB) breath signals. The analysis is carried out with 37 breath sound signals. The spectral analysis brings out the signatures of VB and BB through the power spectral density plot and wavelet scalogram. The dynamics of airflow through the respiratory tract during VB and BB are investigated using the nonlinear time series and complexity analyses in terms of the phase portrait, fractal dimension, Hurst exponent, and sample entropy. The higher degree of chaoticity in BB relative to VB is unwrapped through the maximal Lyapunov exponent. The principal component analysis helps in classifying VB and BB sound signals through the feature extraction from the power spectral density data. The method proposed in the present work is simple, cost-effective, and sensitive, with a far-reaching potential of addressing and diagnosing the current issue of COVID 19 through lung auscultation.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Breath sound analysis, Fractal dimension, Nonlinear time series analysis, Sample entropy, Hurst exponent, Principal component analysis
Published: 28.06.2022; Views: 262; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,73 MB)

The efflorescent carbon allotropes: Fractality preserved blooming through alkali treatment and exfoliation
Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, Sankararaman S, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The work reported in the paper elucidates morphological modification induced nanoart and surface area enhancement of graphite, graphene, and soot containing carbon allotropes through ultrasonication and alkali-treatment. The field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) analysis of the samples before and after exfoliation reveals the formation of brilliant flower-like structures from spindle-like basic units due to Ostwald ripening. The x-ray diffraction analysis of the samples gives information about structural composition. The fractal analysis of the FESEM images indicates a multifractal structure with the dimensions—box-counting dimension D0 (1.72), information dimension D1 (1.66), and correlation dimension D2 (1.63)—preserved upon exfoliation. The process of ultra-sonication assisted liquid phase exfoliation resembles blooming as if the carbon allotropes are efflorescent.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: carbon allotropes, fractal dimension, soot, fractality, alkali treatment, exfoliation
Published: 04.07.2022; Views: 192; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (8,02 MB)

Organometallic sodium carbide for heat transfer applications: A thermal lens study
Sankararaman S, Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The search for excellent heat transfer fuids necessitates the development of novel nanofuids. The paper is the frst report revealing the potential of sodium carbide (Na2C2) nanoparticle for heat transfer and thermal shielding applications. For this, Na2C2 is prepared from the porous carbon matrix of Aloe vera leaves by hydrothermal method. The morphological changes on hydrothermal treatment and the thermal stability are analyzed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Thermogravimetry. The X-ray difraction analysis reveals the formation of sodium carbide, which is confrmed by Fourier transform infrared, Ultraviolet–Visible–Near Infrared, and Raman spectroscopic analyses. The spectroscopic study of the sample synthesized shows indirect bandgap energy of 1.58 eV. The thermal difusivity of Na2C2 nanofuid, determined by the single-beam thermal lens technique, exhibited 87 % enhancement for the base fuid, suggesting its potential in heat transfer applications.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Aloe vera, Heat transfer, Organometallic, Sodium carbide, Thermal lens
Published: 04.07.2022; Views: 182; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,75 MB)

Absolute Porosity Analysis in Carbon Allotropic Nanofluids: A Sankar–Swapna Model Approach
Sankararaman S, SREEJYOTHI S, Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Porous materials have gained significant attention in recent years as a class of material exhibiting interesting chemical and physical properties. The existing methods of porosity analysis have limitations that prevent absolute porosity measurement. Hence, a technique independent of surface physical properties alone can give the absolute porosity of the material. The porosity greatly influences the thermal diffusivity of a material. The manuscript is the first report of employing the Sankar–Swapna model for analyzing the porosity variations in carbon allotropic nanofluids. The model helps not only in getting information about the absolute porosity variations among samples, but also suggests morphological modifications through the thermal diffusivity study using the sensitive single-beam thermal lens technique. The variations in thermal diffusivity and absolute porosity values are also correlated to morphological modifications based on the theoretical model and thereby proposing this as a surrogate method for absolute porosity analysis.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: absolute porosity, Sankar–Swapna model, thermal diffusivity, thermal lens, thermal conductivity
Published: 04.07.2022; Views: 208; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,96 MB)

Tuning the thermal diffusivity of the seed matter for enhanced biosynthesis: A thermal lens study
Sankararaman S, Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The thermodynamics of the seed matter after imbibition is highly significant as the growth and germination involve complex biochemical exergonic process. The germination of seed and compositional variation of the seed matter has always been a fascinating field of research. The present work unveils the thermodynamics associated with the changing thermal diffusivity of the seed matter through the green technology-based single-beam thermal lens technique. Investigations are carried out in Vigna radiata seeds, germinating in media with and without carbon allotropes, through various spectroscopic techniques. The morphology of the soot and carbon allotropes is understood from the field emission scanning electron microscope images. The thermal lens study throws light into the energy trapping nature of the seed matter of the seed growing in carbon allotropic media which facilitates biosynthesis. The observed increased rate of growth of the seed is substantiated through the ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared (NIR), Fourier transform infrared, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic analyses. The NIR and PL studies also reveal the formation of chlorophyll molecule during germination. Thus, the study suggests a mechanism for tuning the thermal diffusivity of the seed matter as to trap the biochemical energy to facilitate the further biosynthesis and thereby to enhance the growth rate.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: seed matter, thermal diffusivity, thermal lens, carbon nanoparticle, soot
Published: 04.07.2022; Views: 195; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,68 MB)

Investigation of Fractality and variation of fractal dimension in germinating seed
Sankararaman S, SREEJYOTHI S, Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The fractal analysis has now been recognized as a potential mathematical tool in analyzing complex structures. The present work reports not only the fractal nature of Vigna radiata seed analyzed with the help of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic images but also the variation of fractal dimension (FD) in a germinating seed. The variation of FD during germination in different media—water, salt, and diesel soot with carbon nanoparticles (CNPs)—is studied using the box-counting technique. The study is the first report of the fractality of seed. Irrespective of the media, the FD attains a maximum value on the day of germination and decreases after that. The time (T) for achieving maximum FD varies with the nature of stress. In the study, when the CNPs of diesel soot lower the T value, the salt raises the T value with respect to the control set. The Fourier Transform Infrared analysis of the seeds germinating in different media shows an increased rate of protein formation during the initial stage of germination and a steady state after that. In conjunction with the literature, the variation in the amino nitrogen, soluble nucleotide—RNA, and protein content of the seed during the initial days of germination gets reflected in its FD.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: fractal analysis, seed germination, Vigna radiata
Published: 04.07.2022; Views: 267; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,74 MB)

Allotropic transformation instigated thermal diffusivity of soot nanofluid: Thermal lens study
Sankararaman S, RAJ VIMAL, Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper employs the sensitive single-beam thermal lens technique for analyzing the thermal behavior of gasoline soot containing allotropes of carbon by preparing its nanofluid (NF). The soot, annealed at different temperatures up to 400 ○C (the samples), used for preparing the NF, is found to enhance the thermal diffusivity (α) up to 95% without changing the solid volume fraction, suggesting its possible use in coolants. The thermal induced modifications are understood from the field emission scanning electron microscopic, X-ray diffraction (XRD),thermogravimetric, and Raman spectroscopic analyses. The variation of α of the sample is found to exhibit similar variations observed in XRD and Raman spectroscopic analyses. The study stresses the significance of the optimum temperature (300 ○C) for the soot NF above which morphological and structural modifications may lead to thermal energy trapping rather than dissipation or cooling.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: petrol soot, thermal lens, thermal diffusivity
Published: 04.07.2022; Views: 268; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (3,08 MB)

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