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1.
Polysaccharide-based films and coatings for food packaging: A review.
Patricia Cazón, Gonzalo Velazquez, Jose A. Ramirez, Manuel Vazquez, 2017, review article

Abstract: The accumulation of synthetic plastics, mainly from food packaging, is causing a serious environmental problem. It is driving research efforts to the development of biodegradable films and coatings. The biopolymers used as raw material to prepare biodegradable films should be renewable, abundant and low-cost. In some cases, they can be obtained from wastes. This review summarizes the advances in polysaccharide-based films and coatings for food packaging. Among the materials studied to develop biodegradable packaging films and coatings are polysaccharides such as cellulose, chitosan, starch, pectin and alginate. These polysaccharides are able to form films and coatings with good barrier properties against the transport of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, tensile strength and percentage of elongation are important mechanical properties. Desirable values of them are required to maintain the integrity of the packed food. The tensile strength values showed by polysaccharide-based films vary from each other, but some of them exhibit similar values to those observed in synthetic polymers values. For example, tensile strength values of films based on high amylose starch or chitosan are comparable to those values found in high-density polyethylene films. The values of percentage of elongation are the main concern, which are far from the desirable values found for synthetic polymers. Researchers are studying combinations of polysaccharides with other materials to improve the barrier and mechanical properties in order to obtain biopolymers that could replace synthetic polymers. Functional polymers with antimicrobial properties, as that the case of chitosan, are also being studied.
Keywords: Cellulose, Chitosan, Starch, Water vapour permeability, Tensile strength, Percentage of elongation at break
Published in RUNG: 14.12.2020; Views: 2481; Downloads: 0
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2.
Novel composite films based on cellulose reinforced with chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol: Effect on mechanical properties and water vapour permeability
Patricia Cazón, Manuel Vazquez, Gonzalo Velazquez, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Novel composite films were prepared by dissolving microcrystalline cellulose (3–5% w/w) in NaOH/urea solution, followed by coagulation in acetic acid solution. The regenerated cellulose films were immersed in chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol solutions at concentrations of 0–1% w/w and 0–4% w/w, respectively. Tensile strength, percentage of elongation at break, Young's modulus and water vapour permeability were measured to assess the effect of each compound on the mechanical and barrier properties. Polynomial models were obtained to evaluate the effect of the formulation on the measured properties. The microstructure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed tensile strength values in the range 27.75–78.48 MPa, similar to usual synthetic polymer films. Percentage of elongation at break ranged from 0.98 to 12.82%, increasing when polyvinyl alcohol and chitosan increased. Young's modulus ranged from 2727.04 to 4217.25 MPa, showing higher values than pure chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol films. The highest value was reached combining cellulose and polyvinyl alcohol without chitosan. The water vapour permeability (1.78·10−11-4.24·10−11 g/m s Pa) showed 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of synthetic polymers, but lower than pure chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol films. Results showed that it is feasible to obtain cellulose-chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol composite films with improved mechanical properties and water vapour permeability.
Keywords: Regenerated cellulose, Tensile strength, Elongation at break, Young's modulus, Water vapour permeability
Published in RUNG: 14.12.2020; Views: 2486; Downloads: 0
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3.
Composite films of regenerate cellulose with chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol: Evaluation of water adsorption, mechanical and optical properties
Patricia Cazón, Manuel Vazquez, Gonzalo Velazquez, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: The aimof this study was to develop composite films from cellulose, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol to obtain environmentally friendly materials. Toughness, burst strength, distance to burst and water adsorption properties weremeasured and analysed as a function ofcellulose (3–5%), chitosan (0–1%) andpolyvinyl alcohol (0–4%) con- tents. Polynomial modelswere obtained. Light-barrier properties, transparency, morphology, structural and ther- mal analyses were assessed. Results showed that chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol enhanced the mechanical properties of cellulose-based films. Toughness values ranged from 0.47 to 8.01 MJ/m3, burst strength values ranged from 929 to 6291 g, distance to burst ranged from 1.25 to 2.52 mm and water adsorption values ranged from52.30 to 143.56%. Cellulose and chitosan improved the UV light protection effect ofthe films. However, PVA increased the transmittance meanwhile improved the film transparency. FT-IR and DSC showed an interaction between the components ofthe films. Results showed that it is feasible to obtain cellulose-chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol composite films with improvedmechanical properties, high capacity to adsorbwater, good barrier properties against UV radiations and adequate transparency value. These properties could be useful for potential packaging applications in the food industry or as a partial alternative to synthetic films
Keywords: Regenerated cellulose, Puncture test, Water adsorption
Published in RUNG: 14.12.2020; Views: 2252; Downloads: 0
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4.
Cellulose-glycerol-polyvinyl alcohol composite films for food packaging: Evaluation of water adsorption, mechanical properties, light-barrier properties and transparency
Patricia Cazón, Manuel Vazquez, Gonzalo Velazquez, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Nowadays consumers are aware of environmental problems. As an alternative to petrochemical polymers for food packaging, researchers have been focused on biopolymeric materials as raw material. The aim of this study was to evaluate mechanical properties (toughness, burst strength and distance to burst), water adsorption, light- barrier properties and transparency of composite films based on cellulose, glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol. Scanning electron microscopy, spectral analysis (FT-IR and UV–VIS-NIR) and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to explain the morphology, structural and thermal properties of the films. Results showed that polyvinyl alcohol enhances the toughness of films up to 44.30 MJ/m3. However, toughness decreases when glycerol concentration is increased (from 23.41 to 10.55 MJ/m3). Water adsorption increased with increasing polyvinyl alcohol concentration up to 222%. Polyvinyl alcohol increased the film thickness. The films showed higher burst strength (up to 12014 g) than other biodegradable films. The films obtained have optimal values of transparency like those values of synthetic polymers. Glycerol produced a UV protective effect in the films, an important effect for food packaging to prevent lipid oxidative deterioration. Results showed that it is feasible to obtain cellulose-glycerol-polyvinyl alcohol composite films with improved properties.
Keywords: Cellulose, Toughness, Burst strength, Distance to burst, Water adsorption, Transparency
Published in RUNG: 14.12.2020; Views: 2575; Downloads: 0
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5.
Novel composite films from regenerated cellulose-glycerol-polyvinyl alcohol: Mechanical and barrier properties
Patricia Cazón, Gonzalo Velazquez, Manuel Vazquez, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Cellulose is considered as an alternative for the demand of biocompatible and environmentally friendly food packaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate a composite film from regenerated cellulose combined with polyvinyl alcohol. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer. Mathematical models were used to describe the effect of the film structure on the mechanical (tensile strength, percentage of elongation at break) and barrier properties (water vapour permeability, light-barrier properties and transparency). The morphology, structural and thermal properties were evaluated by spectral analysis (FT-IR and UV-VIS-NIR), scanning electron microscopy and dif- ferential scanning calorimetry. Models predict cellulose-glycerol-polyvinyl alcohol films with tensile strength values from 25.9 to 369 MPa, similar to that of synthetic polymer films. The elongation at break of the developed films (0.89–18.7%) was lower than that of synthetic polymer films. The water vapour permeability obtained (2.32·10−11 - 3.01·10−11 g/s·m·Pa) was higher than that of petrochemical-based plastics. Cellulose films re- inforced with polyvinyl alcohol showed a smooth surface. Results showed that it is viable to accomplish com- posite films from cellulose-polyvinyl alcohol-glycerol with enhanced mechanical properties. The obtained films showed top values of transparency. The addition of glycerol resulted in films with a UV protective effect which could be important in food packaging to prevent lipid oxidative deterioration.
Keywords: Regenerated cellulose, Tensile strength, Water vapor permeability, Anti-plasticizer, DSC, UV protection
Published in RUNG: 14.12.2020; Views: 2463; Downloads: 0
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6.
Characterization of bacterial cellulose films combined with chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol: Evaluation of mechanical and barrier properties
Patricia Cazón, Gonzalo Velazquez, Manuel Vazquez, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Komagataeibacter xylinus is a biomaterial with a unique three-dimensional structure. To improve the mechanical properties and reinforce the BC films, they were immersed in polyvinyl alcohol (0–4%) and chitosan (0–1%) baths. Moisture content, mechanical properties and water vapour perme- ability were measured to assess the effect of polyvinyl alcohol and chitosan. The morphology, optical, structural and thermal properties were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, spectral analysis, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Results showed that moisture content was significantly affected by the chitosan presence. Tensile strength values in the 20.76–41.65 MPa range were similar to those of synthetic polymer films. Percentage of elongation ranged from 2.28 to 21.82% and Young's modulus ranged from 1043.88 to 2247.82 MPa. The water vapour permeability (1.47×10−11–3.40×10−11 g/m s Pa) decreased with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol. The developed films own UV light barrier properties and optimal visual appearance.
Keywords: Films, Bacterial cellulose, Water vapor permeability, Chitosan, Polyvinyl alcohol, UV protection
Published in RUNG: 14.12.2020; Views: 2411; Downloads: 0
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7.
Composite films with UV-barrier properties of bacterial cellulose with glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol: puncture properties, solubility and swelling degree
Patricia Cazón, Manuel Vazquez, Gonzalo Velazquez, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop composite films based on bacterial cellulose, glycerol, and poly(vinyl alcohol) with improved optical and mechanical properties and good UV-barrier property. The interaction among the compounds was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ther- mogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties (toughness, burst strength, and distance to burst), solubility, water adsorption, and light barrier properties of the composite films were evaluated. Polynomial models obtained allowed us to predict the behavior of these properties. Poly(vinyl alcohol) showed a reinforcing effect on the bacterial cellulose matrix, while glycerol showed a noticeable plasticizing behavior. The bacterial cellulose-based composites showed toughness values ranging from 0.22 to 2.60 MJ/m3. The burst strength values obtained ranged between 43.74 and 2105.52 g. The distance to burst ranged from 0.39 to 4.94 mm. The film solubility on water ranged from 9.37 to 31.65%, and the water retention ranged from 78.26 to 364.78%. Glycerol decreased the transmittance in the UV region, improving the UV- barrier properties of the films, while poly(vinyl alcohol) improved the transparency and opacity values of the samples. The transmittance in the UV regions (A, B, and C) ranged from 1 to 48.51%, increasing with the poly(vinyl alcohol) concentration.
Keywords: DSC, FT-IR, SEM, UV protection
Published in RUNG: 14.12.2020; Views: 2213; Downloads: 0
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8.
Characterization of mechanical and barrier properties of bacterial cellulose, glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) composite films with eco-friendly UV-protective properties
Patricia Cazón, Gonzalo Velazquez, Manuel Vazquez, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Highly flexible composite films based on bacterial cellulose, glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) with UV barrier properties were developed. The open nanoscale network of bacterial cellulose allowed to combine it with glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol by immersion. This procedure kept intact the bacterial cellulose structure. The interactions among bacterial cellulose, glycerol and PVOH were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. In general, the addition of PVOH reinforced the bacterial cellulose matrix, meanwhile glycerol showed a significant plasticizing effect. Formulations with PVOH and glycerol reached a maximum value of 49.89% of elongation and a good resistance to rupture of 13.78 MPa. The water vapour permeability ranged from 1.87·10−11 to 2.04·10−10 g/m s Pa. The UV-VIS spectral analysis showed that glycerol decreased the transmittance in the UV area and polyvinyl alcohol enhanced the transparency values of the samples in the VIS region. The transmittance in the UV-A, UV-B and UV- C areas for films based on bacterial cellulose with glycerol reached up to 5.59, 2.4 and 0.57%, respectively.
Keywords: Acetobacter xylinum, Tensile strength, Percentage of elongation at break, Young's modulus, Eco-friendly film
Published in RUNG: 14.12.2020; Views: 2267; Downloads: 0
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9.
Environmentally Friendly Films Combining Bacterial Cellulose, Chitosan, and Polyvinyl Alcohol: Effect of Water Activity on Barrier, Mechanical, and Optical Properties
Patricia Cazón, Manuel Vazquez, Gonzalo Velazquez, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The interest in developing new materials intended for food packaging based on bacterial cellulose is growing in the recent years. Flexible and transparent films from bacterial cellulose-chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol have shown excellent UV-barrier properties. However, this composite material interacts with ambient moisture modifying its water activity due to its hydrophilic nature. In this work, an extensive study was carried out to evaluate the changes in the properties of these films as a function of water activity. Moisture adsorption isotherm were described by the GAB method. Results showed the plasticizing effect of water molecules increasing the water vapour permeability of the samples from 1.86·10-12 to 1.17·10-11 g/m·s·Pa, the percentage of elongation from 3.25 to 36.55% and the distance to burst from 0.64 to 5.12 mm. The increase of the water activity dropped the tensile strength values from 74.76 to 38.56 MPa, Young’s modulus values from 3133.46 to 30.71 MPa and burst strength to 703.87 g. The values of the UV-barrier were maintained at the wide range of water activity. Consequently, water molecules do not affect the UV-barrier properties of the films.
Keywords: GAB model, moisture adsorption isotherms, plasticization, bacterial cellulose, mechanical properties, UV-barrier properties, moisture content
Published in RUNG: 09.12.2020; Views: 2633; Downloads: 0
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10.
Regenerated cellulose films combined with glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol: Effect of moisture content on the physical properties
Patricia Cazón, Gonzalo Velazquez, Manuel Vazquez, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Regenerated cellulose-based films combined with glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) show interesting UV- light barrier properties, with potential application in food packaging to prevent oxidative deterioration. How- ever, these materials are sensitive to moisture, and their properties could be modified as a function of the relative humidity. Hence, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the changes in the main properties of re- generated cellulose-glycerol-PVOH films depending on the relative humidity. Using the GAB adsorption iso- therms, the moisture content was related with the water activity of the films at several relative humidity conditions. According to the obtained results, water molecules manifested a plasticizing effect modifying the mechanical, water vapour permeability and optical properties of the developed films. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus values ranged from 92.65 to 17.57 MPa and from 3639.09 to 227.89 MPa, respectively. Both of them decreased when the moisture content increased. The mechanical resistance to deformation of films enhanced at high moisture content, changing from 5.88 to 15.97% and from 0.59 to 2.97 mm in the tensile and puncture test, respectively. This effect was also observed for the burst strength. Water vapour permeability increased from 5.15⋅10?10 to 5.44⋅10?9 g/ms Pa when the moisture content increased, being more significative at higher values. No significant variations were observed in the UV-VIS transmittance at different moisture contents. The obtained results allow expanding the knowledge of the behavior of films based on regenerated cellulose.
Keywords: Adsorption isotherms, Plasticization, Regenerated cellulose, Water vapour permeability, Moisture content
Published in RUNG: 09.12.2020; Views: 2575; Downloads: 0
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