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1.
Positive implicative ideals of BCK-algebras based on neutrosophic sets and falling shadows
Hashem Bordbar, Xiao Long Xin, Rajab Ali Borzooei, Young Bae Jun, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Neutrosophy is introduced by F. Smarandache in 1980 which studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. Neutrosophy considers a proposition, theory, event, concept, or entity, ”A” in relation to its opposite, ”Anti-A” and that which is not A, ”Non-A”, and that which is neither ”A” nor ”Anti-A”, denoted by ”Neut-A”. Neutrosophy is the basis of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic set, and neutrosophic statistics. In this article, we apply the notion of neutrosophic set theory to (positive implicative) ideals in BCK-algebras by using the concept of falling shadows. The notions of a positive implicative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal and a positive implicative falling neutrosophic ideal are introduced, and several properties are investigated. Characterizations of a positive implicative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal are considered, and relations between a positive implicative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal and an (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal are discussed. Conditions for an (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal to be a positive implicative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal are provided, and relations between a positive implicative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal, a falling neutrosophic ideal and a positive implicative falling neutrosophic ideal are studied. Conditions for a falling neutrosophic ideal to be positive implicative are provided.
Keywords: neutrosophic random set, neutrosophic falling shadow, neutrosophic ideal, (positive implicative) falling neutrosophic ideal
Published in RUNG: 06.06.2022; Views: 1260; Downloads: 0
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2.
N-subalgebras of BCK=BCI-algebras which are induced from hyperfuzzy structures
Hashem Bordbar, Mohammad Rahim Bordbar, Rajab Ali Borzooei, Young Bae Jun, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: In the paper [J. Ghosh and T.K. Samanta, Hyperfuzzy sets and hyperfuzzy group, Int. J. Advanced Sci Tech. 41 (2012), 27–37], Ghosh and Samanta introduced the concept of hyperfuzzy sets as a generalization of fuzzy sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets and applied it to group theory. The aim of this manuscript is to study N-structures in BCK\BCI-algebras induced from hyperfuzzy structures.
Keywords: hyperfuzzy set, hyperfuzzy structure, hyperfuzzy subalgebra, N-subalgebra, induced N-function
Published in RUNG: 03.11.2021; Views: 1480; Downloads: 42
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3.
Soft subalgebras and ideals of BCK/BCI-algebras based on N -structures
Elhan Hassani Sadrabadi, Hashem Bordbar, Rajab Ali Borzooei, Arsham Borumand Saeid, Young Bae Jun, 2021, original scientific article

Keywords: N-ideal of types, soft N-subalgebra, soft N-ideal
Published in RUNG: 23.08.2021; Views: 1560; Downloads: 0
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4.
Interior BCK/BCI-algebras
Sun Shin Ahn, Hashem Bordbar, Young Bae Jun, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The notions of interior BCK/BCI-algebras, positive implicative interior BCK-algebras, (weak) interior ideals, positive implicative interior ideals, a positive implicative weak interior ideal of type 1, type 2, and type 3 are introduced, and related properties are investigated. A mapping is provided to the set of all involutions of a bounded BCK-algebra in relation to any interior BCKalgebra so that the set of all involutions of a bounded BCK-algebra can be an interior BCK-algebra. The relationship between interior ideals, weak interior ideals, and positive implicative interior ideals is established. The conditions under which a weak interior ideal can change to an interior ideal are founded. The conditions for an interior ideal to be a positive implicative interior ideal are provided. The scalability for a positive implicative interior ideal is discussed. The relationship between type 1, type 2, and type 3 on positive implicative weak interior ideals are investigated. The relationship between weak interior ideal and positive implicative weak interior ideal of type 1, type 2, and type 3 are established.
Keywords: interior BCK/BCI-algebras, positive implicative interior, BCK-algebras, (weak) interior ideals, positive implicative interior ideals
Published in RUNG: 21.07.2021; Views: 1678; Downloads: 45
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5.
Internal and external cubic subalgebras of BCK/BCI-algebras
Hashem Bordbar, Mohammad Mehdi Zahedi, Young Bae Jun, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: A characterization of cubic subalgebra is established. The notion of internal and external cubic subalgebra in BCK\BCI-algebra, and several properties are investigated. The R-union, R-intersection, P-union, and P-intersection of internal and external cubic subalgebras in BCK=BCI-algebra are discussed.
Keywords: subalgebra, internal cubic subalgebra, external cubic subalgebra
Published in RUNG: 07.04.2021; Views: 1764; Downloads: 0
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6.
Implicative falling neutrosophic ideals of BCK-algebras
Xiao Long Xin, Hashem Bordbar, Florentin Smarandache, Rajab Ali Borzooei, Young Bae Jun, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The notions of an implicative (2; 2)-neutrosophic ideal and an implicative falling neutrosophic ideal are introduced, and several properties are investigated. Characterizations of an implicative (2; 2)-neutrosophic ideal are considered, and relations between an implicative (2; 2)-neutrosophic ideal and an (2; 2)-neutrosophic ideal are discussed. Conditions for an (2; 2)-neutrosophic ideal to be an implicative (2; 2)-neutrosophic ideal are provided, and relations between an implicative (2; 2)-neutrosophic ideal, a falling neutrosophic ideal and an implicative falling neutrosophic ideal are studied. Conditions for a falling neutrosophic ideal to be implicative are provided. Relations between implicative falling neutrosophic ideal, commutative falling neutrosophic ideal and positive implicative falling neutrosophic ideal are discussed.
Keywords: neutrosophic random set, neutrosophic falling shadow, (positive implicative) (2, 2)-neutrosophic ideal, (positive implicative) falling neutrosophic ideal, (commutative) (2, 2)-neutrosophic ideal, (commutative) falling neutrosophic ideal
Published in RUNG: 15.03.2021; Views: 1913; Downloads: 0
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7.
Diversity of bacteria and bacterial products as antibiofilm and antiquorum sensing drugs against pathogenic bacteria
Fazlurrahman Khan, Sandra Oloketuyi, Young-Mog Kim, 2019, review article

Abstract: The increase in antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria has led to the development of new therapeutic approaches to inhibit biofilm formation as well as interfere quorum sensing (QS) signaling systems. The QS system is a phenomenon in which pathogenic bacteria produce signaling molecules that are involved in cell to cell communication, production of virulence factors, biofilm maturation, and several other functions. In the natural environment, several non-pathogenic bacteria are present as mixed population along with pathogenic bacteria and they control the behavior of microbial community by producing secondary metabolites. Similarly, non-pathogenic bacteria also take advantages of the QS signaling molecule as a sole carbon source for their growth through catabolism with enzymes. Several enzymes are produced by bacteria which disrupt the biofilm architecture by degrading the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) such as exopolysaccharide, extracellular- DNA and protein. Thus, the interference of QS system by bacterial metabolic products and enzymatic catalysis, modification of the QS signaling molecules as well as enzymatic disruption of biofilm architecture have been considered as the alternative therapeutic approaches. This review article elaborates on the diversity of different bacterial species with respect to their metabolic products as well as enzymes and their molecular modes of action. The bacterial enzymes and metabolic products will open new and promising perspectives for the development of strategies against the pathogenic bacterial infections.
Keywords: Bacteria, biofilm, quorum sensing, inhibition, metabolites, pathogen, virulence.
Published in RUNG: 18.01.2021; Views: 2252; Downloads: 0
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8.
Treatment strategies targeting persister cell formation in bacterial pathogens
Fazlurrahman Khan, Dung Pham, Nazia Tabassum, Sandra Oloketuyi, Young-Mog Kim, 2020, review article

Abstract: Persister cells are transiently antibiotic-tolerant and dormant subpopulations that are produced to escape the effects of antibiotics within biofilms or planktonic cell populations. Persister cells are of high clinical importance due to their tolerance to antimicrobial agents and subsequent failure in antibiotic treatments. Understanding persister cell formation mechanisms is therefore highly important for developing effective therapeutic strategies against pathogenic bacterial persisters. Several anti-persister compounds have been previously identified via isolation from natural resources or chemical synthesis. Furthermore, a combination of these compounds with antibiotics or non-antibiotic drugs also allows action on multiple targets while reducing the administration frequency. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of the clinical importance and formation mechanisms of persister cells as well as the current treatment strategies against persister cell formations in chronic infections.
Keywords: Biofilm, anti-persister agents, persister cells, pathogenic bacteria, chronic infections
Published in RUNG: 14.01.2021; Views: 2421; Downloads: 0
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9.
Molecules involved in motility regulation in Escherichia coli cells: a review
Fazlurrahman Khan, Nazia Tabassum, Dung :Pham, Sandra Oloketuyi, Young-Mog Kim, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The initial colonization of the host organism by commensal, probiotic, and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains is an important step in the development of infections and biofilms. Sensing and colonization of host cell surfaces are governed by flagellar and fimbriae/pili appendages, respectively. Biofilm formation confers great advantages on pathogenic E. coli cells such as protection against the host immune system, antimicrobial agents, and several environmental stress factors. The transition from planktonic to sessile physiological states involves several signaling cascades and factors responsible for the regulation of flagellar motility in E. coli cells. These regulatory factors have thus become important targets to control pathogenicity. Hence, attenuation of flagellar motility is considered a potential therapy against pathogenic E. coli. The present review describes signaling pathways and proteins involved in direct or indirect regulation of flagellar motility. Furthermore, application strategies for antimotility natural or synthetic compounds are discussed also.
Keywords: Biofilm formation, Escherichia coli, inhibition, motility, pathogenesis
Published in RUNG: 14.01.2021; Views: 3403; Downloads: 0
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10.
Chitosan and their derivatives: Antibiofilm drugs against pathogenic bacteria
Fazlurrahman Khan, Dong Pham, Sandra Oloketuyi, Panchanathan Manivasagan, Junghwan Oh, Young-Mog Kim, 2020, review article

Abstract: Biofilm formed by several pathogenic bacteria results in the development of resistance against antimicrobial compounds. The polymeric materials present in the biofilm architecture hinder the entry of antimicrobial compounds through the surface of bacterial cells which are embedded as well as enclosed beneath the biofilm matrix. Recent and past studies explored the alternative approaches to inhibit the formation of biofilm by different agents isolated from plants, animals, and microbes. Among these agents, chitosan and its derivatives have got more attention due to their properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-allergenic and non-toxicity. Recent researches have focused on employing chitosan and its derivatives as effective agents to inhibit biofilm formation and attenuate virulence properties by various pathogenic bacteria. Such antibiofilm activity of chitosan and its derivatives can be further enhanced by conjugation with a wide range of bioactive compounds. The present review describes the antibiofilm properties of chitosan and its derivatives against the pathogenic bacteria. This review also summarizes the mechanisms of biofilm inhibition exhibited by these molecules. The knowledge of the antibiofilm activities of chitosan and its derivatives as well as their underlying mechanisms provides essential insights for widening their applications in the future.
Keywords: Antibiofilm, Biofilm inhibition, Chitosan, Chitosan derivatives, Pathogenic bacteria
Published in RUNG: 14.01.2021; Views: 2222; Downloads: 0
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