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The dissociation constant of water at extreme conditions: a molecular dynamics study
Rabi Khanal, 2012, undergraduate thesis

Keywords: water, molecular dynamics, pK, dissociation, Bluemoon approach
Published in RUNG: 21.03.2019; Views: 3391; Downloads: 1
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3.
HAS EVOLUTION BEEN INTERRUPTED IN THE AFRICAN OIKOS? : MERGING THE SELF-ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY APPROACH USING AFRICAN FRACTAL SPATIAL PATTERNS WITH TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE VALUES. YORUBA CITIES AS A CASE STUDY
Tokunbo Laotan-Brown, 2019, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: In essence, a qualitative study revealing what the inhabitants reflect as a deep and personal relationship with and within the region, which contributes significantly to their sense of emotional security and self identity. This includes a strong conservation-orientated attitude with regard to the natural rural character of a clan, tribe or unbounded region using linguistic families, especially in the inner core. It acknowledges the journey though time of the dwellers, changes in requirements in a natural way. The principle behind this thesis is to identify the regional, cultural and environmental demands of where and how a fractal spatial function can be observed as well as how a community can be organised to maintain and preserve its culture in a natural way. Thus, responding to specific characteristics of the local environment and climatic conditions. This lifelong interaction between the cognitive and physical realms has existed overtime. During the evolution of values inhabitants adapted form and materials to the conditions of nature; working with natural forms and climatic cycles rather than considering forces as obstacles to overcome has hermeneutic and practical values; used by intentional makers. The cultural identity in the inhabitant made the home, and then the process of home-making ‘made’ the inhabitant; a reciprocal reward. This will include their connection to the culture, region and environment while proposing a self-organizational solution. The future of conserving African tangible and intangible values, need to take lessons from the past into the future through present resolutions while documenting what maybe an interrupted progression. To achieve the above, I modified an approach using cultural fractal organizational approach as a basis for defining; 1) The structure of research framework using computer simulations and thus establishing linkages between space, region and communal activities. 2) Using African linguistic families (Niger-Congo: Yoruba), as a distinct way of documenting within the context of co-existing social and discursive practices. 3) By generating a background in ethnographic and sensory archaeological data on Yoruba regional cities, focusing on the fractal structure of settlements in relation to the social activities that take place in and around them.
Keywords: Fractals, Self Similarity, Conservation, Self Organizational Approach, Cultural Heritage, Spatial Patterns, IFA, Oikos, Cultural Landscapes, Yoruba Cities, Circularity.
Published in RUNG: 18.01.2019; Views: 4171; Downloads: 179
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4.
Search for Physics beyond the Standard Model with the CRESST Experiment
2017, master's thesis

Abstract: In spite of the successes of observational astro- and particle physics and cosmology very much of the universe remains unknown. The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory describing the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known. But there is overwhelming evidence, that all the known particles, the ordinary (baryonic) matter, the building blocks of planets, stars and ourselves, only make up about 4.9% of the energy content of the universe. The standard model of cosmology (CDM) indicates that the total mass-energy of the universe contains beside the 4.9% ordinary matter two other components: 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. The accelerating expansion of the Universe is the result of the effect of the dark energy with its most simple form given by a cosmological constant in Einstein's Equation. Dark matter is an unidentified type of matter that is not accounted for by dark energy and neutrinos and is generally believed to be a non-relativistic, charge neutral and non-baryonic new form of matter. Although dark matter has not been directly observed yet, its existence and properties are inferred from its gravitational effects such as the motions of visible matter, gravitational lensing, its influence on the universe's large-scale structure, and its effects in the cosmic microwave background. Thus the search for Dark Matter is the search for physics beyond the standard model. Although the nature of dark matter is yet unknown, its presence is crucial to understanding the future of the universe. The CRESST experiment is searching for direct evidence in the form of a nuclear recoil induced on a scintillating CaWO4 crystal by a dark matter particle, and is installed and taking data underground at Laboratory Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. While both, dark energy and dark matter, have not been detected directly, a class of dark matter particles that interact only via gravity and the weak force, referred to asWeakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), has been established as the leading candidate among the dark matter community. For this thesis a special model of dark matter was studied, namely the dark photon. This thesis provides a detailed description of the calculation of the 90% upper limit on the dark photon kinetic mixing based on data from the second phase of the CRESST experiment. The analysis was carried out in a frequentist approach based on the (unbinned) maximum-likelihood method and likelihood ratios. To make a statement about the calculated result and its quality, the used algorithm had to be tested, what was done with Monte Carlo simulations (pseudo data).
Keywords: astro physics, particle physics, cosmology, universe, Standard Model of particle physics, standard model of cosmology, matter, ordinary matter, dark matter, dark energy, accelerating expansion of the Universe, non-baryonic, new form of matter, gravitational lensing, cosmic microwave background, search for physics beyond the standard model, CRESST experiment, direct detection, CaWO4 crystal, underground laboratory, Laboratory Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, WIMP, dark photon, 90% upper limit, upper limit, kinetic mixing, frequentist approach, unbinned, maximum likelihood
Published in RUNG: 13.10.2017; Views: 4488; Downloads: 0
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5.
From polymers to proteins: the effect of side chains and broken symmetry on the formation of secondary structures within a Wang–Landau approach
2016, original scientific article

Abstract: We use a micro-canonical Wang–Landau technique to study the equilibrium properties of a single flexible homopolymer where consecutive monomers are represented by impenetrable hard spherical beads tangential to each other, and non-consecutive monomers interact via a square-well potential. To mimic the characteristics of a protein-like system, the model is then refined in two different directions. Firstly, by allowing partial overlap between consecutive beads, we break the spherical symmetry and thus provide a severe constraint on the possible conformations of the chain. Alternatively, we introduce additional spherical beads at specific positions in the direction normal to the backbone, to represent the steric hindrance of the side chains in real proteins. Finally, we consider also a combination of these two ingredients. In all three systems, we obtain the full phase diagram in the temperature-interaction range plane and find the presence of helicoidal structures at low temperatures in the intermediate range of interactions. The effect of the range of the square-well attraction is highlighted, and shown to play a role similar to that found in simple liquids and polymers. Perspectives in terms of protein folding are finally discussed.
Keywords: Wang-Landau approach, Monte-Carlo simulations, proteins, secondary structures
Published in RUNG: 04.05.2016; Views: 4080; Downloads: 0
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