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Identification and detailed characterization of ▫$PM_10$▫ sources in an Alpine valley influenced by a cement plant
Kristina Glojek, Katja Džepina, Griša Močnik, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The contribution of traffic and wood burning to particulate matter (PM) across the Alps is widely recognized and studied (Herich et al., 2014 and references therein; Glojek et al., 2020). However, studies on valleys with cement production are scarce (Kim et al., 2003; Rovira et al., 2018) despite its large PM emissions and potential toxic properties (Erik et al., 2022; Weinbruch et al., 2023). We aim to identify and characterize sources’ contribution to the complex mixture of carbonaceous and mineral PM10 in a representative Alpine valley. Quartz filter samples of PM10 were collected daily from December 2020 to December 2021 and analyzed using different chemical techniques. In the same period equivalent black carbon (eBC) measurements were taken with the Aethalometer AE43. The measured species were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model (EPA PMF 5.0) with newly added tracers, i. e. source-specific eBC (Sandradewi et al., 2008) and organic species (2-MT, 3-MBTCA, phtalic acid, MSA and oxalate). The final PMF results were compared to online PMF-factors (SoFi Pro) derived from PM10 and PM2.5 elemental measurements (Cooper Xact 625i). Ten factors were identified at the site, including commonly detected biomass burning, traffic, nitrate- and sulfate-rich, aged sea salt and mineral dust. With the added additional organic traces, primary biogenic and secondary oxidation were recognized as well. In addition, two unusual factors were disclosed, contributing 10% to annual PM10. Namely, Cl-rich and a mineral dust-rich factor, which we name the cement kiln factor. We associate these two factors to different processes in the cement plant. The outputs of the study provide vital information about the influence of cement production on PM10 concentrations in complex environments and are useful for PM control strategies and actions.
Keywords: PM pollution, carbonaceous aerosols, source apportionment, industry
Published in RUNG: 10.01.2024; Views: 410; Downloads: 0
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3.
Source apportionment study on particulate air pollution in two high-altitude Bolivian cities: La Paz and El Alto
Valeria Mardoñez, Marco Pandolfi, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Andrés Alastuey, Jean-Luc Besombes, Isabel R. Moreno, Noemí Perez, Griša Močnik, Patrick Ginot, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: La Paz and El Alto are two fast-growing, high-altitude Bolivian cities forming the second-largest metropolitan area in the country. Located between 3200 and 4050 m a.s.l. (above sea level), these cities are home to a burgeoning population of approximately 1.8 million residents. The air quality in this conurbation is heavily influenced by urbanization; however, there are no comprehensive studies evaluating the sources of air pollution and their health impacts. Despite their proximity, the substantial variation in altitude, topography, and socioeconomic activities between La Paz and El Alto result in distinct sources, dynamics, and transport of particulate matter (PM). In this investigation, PM10 samples were collected at two urban background stations located in La Paz and El Alto between April 2016 and June 2017. The samples were later analyzed for a wide range of chemical species including numerous source tracers (OC, EC, water-soluble ions, sugar anhydrides, sugar alcohols, trace metals, and molecular organic species). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF v.5.0) receptor model was employed for the source apportionment of PM10. This is one of the first source apportionment studies in South America that incorporates an extensive suite of organic markers, including levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and alkanes, alongside inorganic species. The multisite PMF resolved 11 main sources of PM. The largest annual contribution to PM10 came from the following two major sources: the ensemble of the four vehicular emissions sources (exhaust and non-exhaust), accountable for 35 % and 25 % of the measured PM in La Paz and El Alto, respectively; and dust, which contributed 20 % and 32 % to the total PM mass. Secondary aerosols accounted for 22 % (24 %) in La Paz (El Alto). Agricultural smoke resulting from biomass burning in the Bolivian lowlands and neighboring countries contributed to 9 % (8 %) of the total PM10 mass annually, increasing to 17 % (13 %) between August–October. Primary biogenic emissions were responsible for 13 % (7 %) of the measured PM10 mass. Additionally, a profile associated with open waste burning occurring from May to August was identified. Although this source contributed only to 2 % (5 %) of the total PM10 mass, it constitutes the second largest source of PAHs, which are compounds potentially hazardous to human health. Our analysis additionally resolved two different traffic-related factors, a lubricant source (not frequently identified), and a non-exhaust emissions source. Overall, this study demonstrates that PM10 concentrations in La Paz and El Alto region are predominantly influenced by a limited number of local sources. In conclusion, to improve air quality in both cities, efforts should primarily focus on addressing dust, traffic emissions, open waste burning, and biomass burning.
Keywords: source apportionment, particular air pollution, high altitude, positive matrix factorization, PMF
Published in RUNG: 15.09.2023; Views: 594; Downloads: 4
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Investigation of Aerosol Types and Vertical Distributions Using Polarization Raman Lidar over Vipava Valley
Longlong Wang, Marija Bervida, Samo Stanič, Klemen Bergant, Asta Gregorič, Luka Drinovec, Zhenping Yin, Yang Yi, Detlef Müller, Xuan Wang, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Aerosol direct radiative forcing is strongly dependent on aerosol distributions and aerosol types. A detailed understanding of such information is still missing at the Alpine region, which currently undergoes amplified climate warming. Our goal was to study the vertical variability of aerosol types within and above the Vipava valley (45.87◦ N, 13.90◦ E, 125 m a.s.l.) to reveal the vertical impact of each particular aerosol type on this region, a representative complex terrain in the Alpine region which often suffers from air pollution in the wintertime. This investigation was performed using the entire dataset of a dual-wavelength polarization Raman lidar system, which covers 33 nights from September to December 2017. The lidar provides measurements from midnight to early morning (typically from 00:00 to 06:00 CET) to provide aerosol-type dependent properties, which include particle linear depolarization ratio, lidar ratio at 355 nm and the aerosol backscatter Ångström exponent between 355 nm and 1064 nm. These aerosol properties were compared with similar studies, and the aerosol types were identified by the measured aerosol optical properties. Primary anthropogenic aerosols within the valley are mainly emitted from two sources: individual domestic heating systems, which mostly use biomass fuel, and traffic emissions. Natural aerosols, such as mineral dust and sea salt, are mostly transported over large distances. A mixture of two or more aerosol types was generally found. The aerosol characterization and statistical properties of vertical aerosol distributions were performed up to 3 km.
Keywords: valley air pollution, aerosol vertical distributions, lidar remote sensing, aerosol identification
Published in RUNG: 21.07.2022; Views: 1267; Downloads: 28
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6.
European Aerosol Phenomenology - 8: Harmonised Source Apportionment of Organic Aerosol using 22 Year-long ACSM/AMS Datasets
Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, Anna Tobler, Griša Močnik, MaríaCruz Minguillón, André Prévôt, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Organic aerosol (OA) is a key component to total submicron particulate matter (PM1), and comprehensive knowledge of OA sources across Europe is crucial to mitigate PM1 levels. Europe has a well-established air quality research infrastructure from which yearlong datasets using 21 aerosol chemical speciation monitors (ACSMs) and 1 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were gathered during 2013-2019. It includes 9 non-urban and 13 urban sites. This study developed a state-of-the-art source apportionment protocol to analyse long-term OA mass spectrum data by applying the most advanced source apportionment strategies (i.e., rolling PMF, ME-2, and bootstrap). This harmonised protocol was followed strictly for all 22 datasets, making the source apportionment results more comparable. In addition, it enables the quantifications of the most common OA components such as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), cooking-like OA (COA), more oxidised-oxygenated OA (MO-OOA), and less oxidised-oxygenated OA (LO-OOA). Other components such as coal combustion OA (CCOA), solid fuel OA (SFOA: mainly mixture of coal and peat combustion), cigarette smoke OA (CSOA), sea salt (mostly inorganic but part of the OA mass spectrum), coffee OA, and ship industry OA could also be separated at a few specific sites. Oxygenated OA (OOA) components make up most of the submicron OA mass (average = 71.1%, range from 43.7 to 100%). Solid fuel combustion-related OA components (i.e., BBOA, CCOA, and SFOA) are still considerable with in total 16.0% yearly contribution to the OA, yet mainly during winter months (21.4%). Overall, this comprehensive protocol works effectively across all sites governed by different sources and generates robust and consistent source apportionment results. Our work presents a comprehensive overview of OA sources in Europe with a unique combination of high time resolution (30-240 minutes) and long-term data coverage (9-36 months), providing essential information to improve/validate air quality, health impact, and climate models.
Keywords: air pollution, source apportionment, organic aeroosl, black carbon
Published in RUNG: 03.06.2022; Views: 1688; Downloads: 11
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7.
The impact of temperature inversions on black carbon and particle mass concentrations in a mountainous area
Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Honey Dawn C. Alas, Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Matej Ogrin, Kay Weinhold, Irena Ježek, Martin Rigler, Maja Remškar, Miha Markelj, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Residential wood combustion is a widespread practice in Europe with a serious impact on air quality, especially in mountainous areas. While there is a significant number of studies conducted in deep urbanized valleys and basins, little is known about the air pollution processes in rural shallow hollows, where around 30 % of the people in mountainous areas across Europe live. We aim to determine the influence of ground temperature inversions on wood combustion aerosol pollution in hilly, rural areas. The study uses Retje karst hollow (Loški Potok, Slovenia) as a representative site for mountainous and hilly rural areas in central and south-eastern Europe with residential wood combustion. Sampling with a mobile monitoring platform along the hollow was performed in December 2017 and January 2018. The backpack mobile monitoring platform was used for the determination of equivalent black carbon (eBC) and particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations along the hollow. To ensure high quality of mobile measurement data, intercomparisons of mobile instruments with reference instruments were performed at two air quality stations during every run. Our study showed that aerosol pollution events in the relief depression were associated with high local emission intensities originating almost entirely from residential wood burning and shallow temperature inversions (58 m on average). The eBC and PM mass concentrations showed stronger associations with the potential temperature gradient (R2=0.8) than with any other meteorological parameters taken into account (ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation). The strong association between the potential temperature gradient and pollutant concentrations suggests that even a small number of emission sources (total 243 households in the studied hollow) in similar hilly and mountainous rural areas with frequent temperature inversions can significantly increase the levels of eBC and PM and deteriorate local air quality. During temperature inversions the measured mean eBC and PM2.5 mass concentrations in the whole hollow were as high as 4.5±2.6 and 48.0 ± 27.7 µg m−3, respectively, which is comparable to larger European urban centres.
Keywords: air pollution, black carbon, sources, temperature inversion, mountainous area
Published in RUNG: 03.05.2022; Views: 1231; Downloads: 0
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Characterization of non-refractory (NR) PM[sub]1 and source apportionment of organic aerosol in Kraków, Poland
Anna Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Francesco Canonaco, Griša Močnik, Pragati Rai, Gang Chen, Jakub Bartyzel, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Katarzyna Styszko, Jaroslaw Nęcki, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Kraków is routinely affected by very high air pollution levels, especially during the winter months. Although a lot of effort has been made to characterize ambient aerosol, there is a lack of online and long-term measurements of non-refractory aerosol. Our measurements at the AGH University of Science and Technology provide the online long-term chemical composition of ambient submicron particulate matter (PM1) between January 2018 and April 2019. Here we report the chemical characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosol and source apportionment of the organic fraction by positive matrix factorization (PMF). In contrast to other long-term source apportionment studies, we let a small PMF window roll over the dataset instead of performing PMF over the full dataset or on separate seasons. In this way, the seasonal variation in the source profiles can be captured. The uncertainties in the PMF solutions are addressed by the bootstrap resampling strategy and the random a-value approach for constrained factors. We observe clear seasonal patterns in the concentration and composition of PM1, with high concentrations during the winter months and lower concentrations during the summer months. Organics are the dominant species throughout the campaign. Five organic aerosol (OA) factors are resolved, of which three are of a primary nature (hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA)) and two are of a secondary nature (more oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA) and less oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA)). While HOA contributes on average 8.6 % ± 2.3 % throughout the campaign, the solid-fuel-combustion-related BBOA and CCOA show a clear seasonal trend with average contributions of 10.4 % ± 2.7 % and 14.1 %, ±2.1 %, respectively. Not only BBOA but also CCOA is associated with residential heating because of the pronounced yearly cycle where the highest contributions are observed during wintertime. Throughout the campaign, the OOA can be separated into MO-OOA and LO-OOA with average contributions of 38.4 % ± 8.4 % and 28.5 % ± 11.2 %, respectively.
Keywords: air pollution, PM1, organic aerosol, black carbon, source apportionment, PMF
Published in RUNG: 08.10.2021; Views: 1732; Downloads: 0
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10.
Sarajevo Canton Winter Field Campaign 2018 (SAFICA) : aerosol source apportionment and oxidative potential in a global hotspot
Katja Džepina, Griša Močnik, 2021, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Nowadays, urban centres in countries of the Western Balkan (e.g., Bosnia and Herzegovina, B&H) are experiencing some of the poorest air quality worldwide due to the extensive use of solid fuels and an old vehicle fleet. Western Balkan countries lack state-of-the-science atmospheric research despite high levels of ambient pollution, making the efforts to understand the mechanisms of their air pollution imperative. Sarajevo, the capital of B&H, is situated in a basin surrounded by mountains. During the winter months, topography and meteorology cause significant pollution episodes. The Sarajevo Canton Winter Field Campaign 2018 (SAFICA) took place from Dec 04, 2017 to Mar 15, 2018 with online aerosol measurements and collection of daily, continuous filter PM10 samples for offline laboratory analyses. SAFICA aimed to give the first detailed characterization of the Western Balkans aerosol composition including organic aerosol (OA) to elucidate aerosol emission sources and atmospheric processing and to estimate the adverse health effects. PM10 samples (ntotal=180) were collected at four sites in the Sarajevo Canton: a) Bjelave and b) Pofalići (both urban background); c) Otoka (urban); d) Ivan Sedlo (remote). The urban sites were distributed along the city basin to study the pollutants’ urban evolution and the remote site was chosen to compare urban to background air masses. SAFICA PM10 samples underwent the following offline laboratory chemical analyses: 1) Bulk chemical composition of the total filter-collected water-soluble inorganic and OA by a high-resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The measured AMS OA spectra were further analysed by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) using the graphical user interface SoFi (Source Finder) to separate OA into subtypes characteristic for OA sources and atmospheric processes. 2) Organic and elemental carbon, water-soluble organic carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (11), levoglucosan, organic acids (16) and 14C total carbon content to evaluate OA chemical composition. 3) Major inorganic anions and cations to evaluate aerosol inorganic species. 4) Aerosol metal content determined by three techniques (AAS, ICP-MS and EESI). 5) Aerosol oxidative potential (OP) by two methods (AA and DTT) to evaluate the ability of particles to generate adverse health effects causing reactive oxygen species. SAFICA online measurements of black carbon (Aethalometer) and the particle number conc. (CPC and OPS) enabled the insights into the daily evolution of primary pollutants and an assessment of aerosol size and number distribution. The combined SAFICA results for field and lab measurements will be presented. Our results show that carbonaceous aerosols make ~2/3 of PM10 mass and the majority are oxygenated, water-soluble OA species with an average OM/OC = 1.9 (Fig.1). Absolute OP levels are very high compared to other sites globally. However, more work is needed to estimate the contributions of different aerosol sources and species to total aerosol OP. Urban air pollution crises in the Western Balkan will be put in the context of local, regional and global air quality. Finally, we will present the scientific questions opened by SAFICA and give suggestions for future studies.
Keywords: Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, urban air pollution, PM10, PM2.5
Published in RUNG: 03.09.2021; Views: 1853; Downloads: 47
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