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Effects of Galactic magnetic field on the UHECR anisotropy studies
R. Higuchi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Telescope Array (TA) and Auger experiments reported anisotropies in the arrival direction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). In particular, Auger Collaboration reported a correlation between UHECR events and the flux model of assumed sources and suggested a contribution of starburst galaxies (SBGs) to the anisotropy of UHECRs. However, in their study, the effect of coherent deflections by the galactic magnetic field (GMF) is not taken into account. In this study, we investigated the effect of the GMF on the arrival directions of UHECRs using the cosmic ray propagation code CRPropa3. We used a backtracking technique which consists of propagating antiparticles to map the flux outside the galaxy to at the earth. We estimate the systematic effects caused by GMF in the reported likelihood analysis. We conduct likelihood analysis for mock UHECR datasets based on the flux pattern through the GMF model. We found systematic decrease of (f_ani, �) due to GMF. As prospects for the TAx4 experiment and joint analysis of Auger and TA collaborations, we develop the likelihood analysis method with the convolution of the rigidity spectrum.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TAx4, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, galactic magnetic field, starburst galaxies
Published in RUNG: 29.09.2023; Views: 65; Downloads: 0
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Low-luminosity jetted AGN as particle multi-messenger sources
Anita Reimer, Margot Boughelilba, Lukas Merten, Paolo Da Vela, Jon Paul Lundquist, Serguei Vorobiov, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The detection of cosmic gamma rays, high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays (CRs) signal the existence of environments in the Universe that allow particle acceleration to extremely high energies. These observable signatures from putative CR sources are the result of in-source acceleration of particles, their energy and time-dependent transport including interactions in an evolving environment and their escape from source, in addition to source-to-Earth propagation. Low-luminosity AGN jets constitute the most abundant persistent jet source population in the local Universe. The dominant subset of these, Fanaroff-Riley 0 (FR0) galaxies, have recently been proposed as sources contributing to the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux observed on Earth. This presentation assesses the survival, workings and multi-messenger signatures of UHECRs in low-luminosity jet environments, with focus on FR0 galaxies. For this purpose we use our recently developed, fully time-dependent CR particle and photon propagation framework which takes into account all relevant secondary production and energy loss processes, allows for an evolving source environment and efficient treatment of transport non-linearities due to the produced particles/photons being fed back into the simulation chain. Finally, we propagate UHE cosmic-ray nuclei and secondary cosmogenic photons and neutrinos from FR0 galaxies to Earth for several extragalactic magnetic field scenarios using the CRPropa3 framework, and confront the resulting energy spectra and composition on Earth with the current observational situation.
Keywords: multi-messenger astrophysics, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), very-high-energy gamma-rays, very-high-energy neutrinos, active galactic nuclei (AGN), low-luminosity jetted AGN, Fanaroff-Riley 0 (FR0) galaxies, UHECR acceleration, UHECR propagation, cosmic magnetic fields
Published in RUNG: 13.09.2023; Views: 155; Downloads: 2
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Saturation magnetisation as an indicator of the disintegration of barium hexaferrite nanoplatelets during the surface functionalisation
Klemen Lisjak, Iztok Arčon, Matic Poberžnik, Gabriela Herrero‑Saboya, Ali Tufani, Andraž Mavrič, Matjaž Valant, Patricija Hribar, Alenka Mertelj, Darko Makovec, Layla Martin‑Samos, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Barium hexaferrite nanoplatelets (BHF NPLs) are permanent nanomagnets with the magnetic easy axis aligned perpendicular to their basal plane. By combining this specific property with optimised surface chemistry, novel functional materials were developed, e.g., ferromagnetic ferrofluids and porous nanomagnets. We compared the interaction of chemically different phosphonic acids, hydrophobic and hydrophilic with 1–4 phosphonic groups, with BHF NPLs. A decrease in the saturation magnetisation after functionalising the BHF NPLs was correlated with the mass fraction of the nonmagnetic coating, whereas the saturation magnetisation of the NPLs coated with a tetraphosphonic acid at 80 °C was significantly lower than expected. We showed that such a substantial decrease in the saturation magnetisation originates from the disintegration of BHF NPLs, which was observed with atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and confirmed by a computational study based on state-of-the-art first-principles calculations. Fe K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) and EXAFS (Extended X-ray absorption fine structure) combined with Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the formation of an Fe–phosphonate complex on the partly decomposed NPLs. Comparing our results with other functionalised magnetic nanoparticles confirmed that saturation magnetisation can be exploited to identify the disintegration of magnetic nanoparticles when insoluble disintegration products are formed.
Keywords: barium hexaferrite, Fe XANES, EXAFS, magnetic nanoparticles
Published in RUNG: 06.07.2023; Views: 312; Downloads: 1
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Magnetic materials : GIAN Course 2022. Course name: Functional Materials
Blaž Belec, invited lecture at foreign university

Keywords: magnetic materials, nanomaterials, permanent magnets
Published in RUNG: 28.02.2022; Views: 1011; Downloads: 0
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Extrapolating FR-0 radio galaxy source properties from propagation of multi-messenger ultra-high energy cosmic rays
Jon Paul Lundquist, Lukas Merten, Serguei Vorobiov, Margot Boughelilba, Anita Reimer, Paolo Da Vela, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Giacomo Bonnoli, Chiara Righi, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Recently, it has been shown that relatively low luminosity Fanaroff-Riley type 0 (FR-0) radio galaxies are a good candidate source class for a predominant fraction of cosmic rays (CR) accelerated to ultra-high energies (UHE, E>10[sup]18 eV). FR-0s can potentially provide a significant fraction of the UHECR energy density as they are much more numerous in the local universe than more energetic radio galaxies such as FR-1s or FR-2s (up to a factor of ∼5 with z≤0.05 compared to FR-1s). In the present work, UHECR mass composition and energy spectra at the FR-0 sources are estimated by fitting simulation results to the published Pierre Auger Observatory data. This fitting is done using a simulated isotropic sky distribution extrapolated from the measured FR-0 galaxy properties and propagating CRs in plausible extragalactic magnetic field configurations using the CRPropa3 framework. In addition, we present estimates of the fluxes of secondary photons and neutrinos created in UHECR interactions with cosmic photon backgrounds during CR propagation. With this approach, we aim to investigate the properties of the sources with the help of observational multi-messenger data.
Keywords: jetted active galaxies, FR-0 radiogalaxies, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, extragalactic magnetic fields, UHECR propagation, UHECR interactions, cosmogenic photons, cosmogenic neutrinos
Published in RUNG: 16.08.2021; Views: 1422; Downloads: 0
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Observational evidence in favor of scale-free evolution of sunspot groups
Alexander Shapoval, Jean-Louis Le Mouël, M. Shnirman, Vincent Courtillot, 2018, original scientific article

Keywords: sunspots, sun, magnetic fields, data analysis
Published in RUNG: 23.03.2021; Views: 1641; Downloads: 55
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Sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array for probing cosmology and fundamental physics with gamma-ray propagation
H. Abdalla, H. Abe, F. Acero, A. Acharyya, R. Adam, Christopher Eckner, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the new-generation ground-based observatory for γ astronomy, provides unique capabilities to address significant open questions in astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics. We study some of the salient areas of γ cosmology that can be explored as part of the Key Science Projects of CTA, through simulated observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and of their relativistic jets. Observations of AGN with CTA will enable a measurement of γ absorption on the extragalactic background light with a statistical uncertainty below 15% up to a redshift z=2 and to constrain or detect γ halos up to intergalactic-magnetic-field strengths of at least 0.3 pG . Extragalactic observations with CTA also show promising potential to probe physics beyond the Standard Model. The best limits on Lorentz invariance violation from γ astronomy will be improved by a factor of at least two to three. CTA will also probe the parameter space in which axion-like particles could constitute a significant fraction, if not all, of dark matter. We conclude on the synergies between CTA and other upcoming facilities that will foster the growth of γ cosmology.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray experiments, axions, extragalactic magnetic fields
Published in RUNG: 02.03.2021; Views: 1843; Downloads: 70
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Evidence for a supergalactic structure of magnetic deflection multiplets of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays
R. U. Abbasi, Mitsuhiro Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Evidence for a large-scale supergalactic cosmic-ray multiplet (arrival directions correlated with energy) structure is reported for ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) energies above 1019 eV using 7 years of data from the Telescope Array (TA) surface detector and updated to 10 years. Previous energy–position correlation studies have made assumptions regarding magnetic field shapes and strength, and UHECR composition. Here the assumption tested is that, because the supergalactic plane is a fit to the average matter density of the local large-scale structure, UHECR sources and intervening extragalactic magnetic fields are correlated with this plane. This supergalactic deflection hypothesis is tested by the entire field-of-view (FOV) behavior of the strength of intermediate-scale energy–angle correlations. These multiplets are measured in spherical cap section bins (wedges) of the FOV to account for coherent and random magnetic fields. The structure found is consistent with supergalactic deflection, the previously published energy spectrum anisotropy results of the TA (the Hotspot and Coldspot), and toy-model simulations of a supergalactic magnetic sheet. The seven year data posttrial significance of this supergalactic structure of multiplets appearing by chance, on an isotropic sky, is found by Monte Carlo simulation to be 4.2σ. The 10 years of data posttrial significance is 4.1σ. Furthermore, the starburst galaxy M82 is shown to be a possible source of the TA Hotspot, and an estimate of the supergalactic magnetic field using UHECR measurements is presented.
Keywords: extragalactic magnetic fields, ultra-high-energy cosmic radiation, cosmic rays, high energy astrophysics, astrophysical magnetism, cosmic ray astronomy, cosmic ray sources
Published in RUNG: 05.02.2021; Views: 1982; Downloads: 124
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