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1.
Performance of the Cherenkov Telescope Array in the presence of clouds
Mario Pecimotika, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very high energies. The atmosphere is an integral part of every Cherenkov telescope. Di˙erent atmospheric conditions, such as clouds, can reduce the fraction of Cherenkov photons produced in air showers that reach ground-based telescopes, which may a˙ect the performance. Decreased sensitivity of the telescopes may lead to misconstructed energies and spectra. This study presents the impact of various atmospheric conditions on CTA performance. The atmospheric transmission in a cloudy atmosphere in the wavelength range from 203 nm to 1000 nm was simulated for di˙erent cloud bases and di˙erent optical depths using the MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN) code. MODTRAN output files were used as inputs for generic Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis was performed using the MAGIC Analysis and Reconstruction Software (MARS) adapted for CTA. As expected, the e˙ects of clouds are most evident at low energies, near the energy threshold. Even in the presence of dense clouds, high-energy gamma rays may still trigger the telescopes if the first interaction occurs lower in the atmosphere, below the cloud base. A method to analyze very high-energy data obtained in the presence of clouds is presented. The systematic uncertainties of the method are evaluated. These studies help to gain more precise knowledge about the CTA response to cloudy conditions and give insights on how to proceed with data obtained in such conditions. This may prove crucial for alert-based observations and time-critical studies of transient phenomena.
Keywords: Cherenkov Telescope Array, very-high energy gamma rays, MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission code, MAGIC Analysis and Reconstruction Software
Published in RUNG: 18.09.2023; Views: 787; Downloads: 4
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2.
The Structure of the Block Code Generated by a BL-Algebra
Hashem Bordbar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Inspired by the concept of BL-algebra as an important part of the ordered algebra, in this paper we investigate the binary block code generated by an arbitrary BL-algebra and study related properties. For this goal, we initiate the study of the BL-function on a nonempty set P based on BL-algebra L, and by using that, l-functions and l-subsets are introduced for the arbitrary element l of a BL-algebra. In addition, by the mean of the l-functions and l-subsets, an equivalence relation on the BL-algebra L is introduced, and using that, the structure of the code generated by an arbitrary BL-algebra is considered. Some related properties (such as the length and the linearity) of the generated code and examples are provided. Moreover, as the main result, we define a new order on the generated code C based on the BL-algebra L, and show that the structures of the BL-algebra with its order and the correspondence generated code with the defined order are the same.
Keywords: BL-function, BL-code, binary linear block codes, coding theory, BL-algebra
Published in RUNG: 07.03.2022; Views: 1646; Downloads: 45
.pdf Full text (261,87 KB)

3.
Building the shared dimension of the rural landscape: tools, principles and methods : An integrated approach to conservation and management of the rural landscape in Venice and its Lagoon
Caterina Groli, 2016, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: This research investigates the rural landscape of the lagoon of Venice and its surrounding territory focusing on the forms of exploitation of its natural resources, the transformations that occurred throughout the course of history and the consequent formation of its primary economical sector. New economic sectors, new agricultural policies and other spatial and sectorial drivers transformed the primary sector itself which changed and adapted its productive schemes to the main economic patterns, heavily affecting the former rural asset of the landscape of the lagoon by changing its demographic, economic activities and land use practices. The study carries out a systematic and detailed analysis of all economic, cultural and social features that have interacted and impacted this specific landscape, relying mainly on the comparison of historical and current land-use maps through three different historical spans: 1823-1840 (pre-industrialization phase), 1933-1966 (industrializing process, considered as a determining factor of the transformation of this landscape) and 2013 (present post-industrialized condition). The maps, combined with relative data, are compared with the aid of the Geographical Information System (GIS) computer software. As a result, a set of new maps has been obtained, which point out the historical landscape permanencies, defined through in situ surveys on the territory. A multitude of other archival documents from direct and indirect sources have been examined in order to build up a sound and detailed socio-economic context and the overall historical background. Resources, goods and services provided by the rural landscape and its development are an important part of regional and EU policy instruments and also an essential factor of identity and growth for local communities. The consumption of resources, their availability and maintenance over time and accessibility through property regulations are all factors that shape the common and public dimension of the rural landscape, which represents another study challenge of this work. This study proposes the establishment of the rural park of the lagoon of Venice, through the implementation of the multi-functional role of agriculture, for the fulfilment of two fundamental conditions of the peri-urban rurality: the need of safeguarding the landscape and its significance, by preserving the authenticity and integrity of the rural characters and the dynamism of the primary sector, which is strictly related to the survival of the rural landscape.
Keywords: Rural landscape of the lagoon of Venice, UNESCO Management Plan 2012–2018, European Landscape Convention, Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), Italian Constitution, Cultural Heritage and Landscape Code, authenticity and integrity of the rural heritage, intangible heritage, landscape evaluation, land-use cartography, Geographical Information System (GIS), fish-farming, multifunctional agriculture, new rural community, common pool resources, public goods, club goods, property rights, rural park
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2016; Views: 5595; Downloads: 217
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