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Highlights from the Telescope Array experiment
R. Abbasi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution (invited lecture)

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest cosmic ray observatory in the Northern Hemisphere. It is designed to measure the properties of cosmic rays over a wide range of energies. TA with it's low energy extension (TALE) observe cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers between 2 PeV and 100 EeV in hybrid mode using multiple instruments, including an array of scintillator detectors at the Earth's surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light. The statistics at the highest energies is being enhanced with the ongoing construction of the TAx4 experiment which will quadruple the surface area of the detector. We review the present status of the experiments and most recent physics results on the cosmic ray anisotropy, chemical composition and energy spectrum. Notable highlights include a new feature in the energy spectrum at about 10^19.2 eV, and a new clustering of events in the direction of Perseus-Pisces supercluster above this energy. We also report on updated diffuse photon flux limits and new spectrum and composition results in the lower energy range from the TALE extension.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition, anisotropy
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 0; Downloads: 0
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Constraints on BSM particles from the absence of upward-going air showers in the Pierre Auger Observatory
Baobiao Yue, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo STANIČ, Serguei VOROBIOV, Danilo ZAVRTANIK, Marko ZAVRTANIK, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory has a large exposure to search for upward-going showers. Constraints have been recently obtained by using 14 years of FD data searching for upward-going showers in the zenith angle range [110◦, 180◦]. In this work, we translate these bounds to upper limits of a possible flux of ultra high energy tau-leptons escaping from the Earth into the atmosphere. Such a mechanism could explain the observation of "anomalous pulses" made by ANITA, that indicated the existence of upward-going air showers with energies above 10[sup]17 eV. As tau neutrinos would be absorbed within the Earth at the deduced angles and energies, a flux of upward-going taus could only be resulted from an unknown type of ultra high energy Beyond Standard Model particle penetrating the Earth with little attenuation, and then creating tau-leptons through interactions within a maximum depth of about 50 km before exiting. We test classes of such models in a generic way and determine upper flux limits of ultra high energy BSM particles as a function of their unknown cross section with matter.
Keywords: Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, Fluorescence Detector, upward-going air showers, Beyond Standard Model particles
Published in RUNG: 26.09.2023; Views: 23; Downloads: 0
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The Fitting Procedure for Longitudinal Shower Profiles Observed with the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
José Bellido, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo STANIČ, Serguei VOROBIOV, Danilo ZAVRTANIK, Marko ZAVRTANIK, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Pierre Auger Observatory uses fluorescence telescopes in conjunction with ground level particle detectors to measure high-energy cosmic rays and reconstruct, with greater precision, their arrival direction, their energy and the depth of shower maximum. The depth of shower maximum is important to infer cosmic ray mass composition. The fluorescence detector is capable of directly measuring the longitudinal shower development, which is used to reconstruct the cosmic ray energy and the atmospheric depth of shower maximum. However, given the limited field of view of the fluorescence detector, the shower profile is not always fully contained within the detector observation volume. Therefore, considerations need to be taken in order to reconstruct some events. In this contribution we will describe the method that the Pierre Auger Collaboration uses to reconstruct the longitudinal profiles of showers and present the details of its performance, namely its resolution and systematic uncertainties.
Keywords: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, longitudinal shower profiles, shower maximum, fluorescence detectors
Published in RUNG: 20.09.2023; Views: 66; Downloads: 0
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In vitro tumor hypoxia imaging with fluorescent covalent organic frameworks
Tina Skorjanc, Dinesh Shetty, Damjan Makuc, Gregor Mali, Martina Bergant Marušič, Matjaz Valant, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Hypoxia refers to a condition where cells and tissues experience low, inadequate levels of O2. While healthy tissues are typically supplied with sufficient O2 (normoxia), cancerous tissues commonly face hypoxia due to the tumor’s extraordinarily high demand for oxygen. Various fluorescent small-molecule probes have been designed for selective detection of hypoxia in living cells, but few nanomaterials have been investigated for this type of bioimaging. Herein, we prepare a fluorescent covalent organic framework (COF) with β-ketoenamine linkages and post-synthetically modify it to conjugate hypoxia-sensitive nitroimidazole moieties into its pores (NI-COF). Stacks of sheets in NI-COF observed under electron microscopy were exfoliated by ultrasonication, and dynamic light scattering measurements confirmed particle size of less than 200 nm. Thus-prepared material exhibited good stability in physiological conditions and low cytotoxicity in in vitro experiments. NI-COF also showed useful fluorescence properties with an emission peak at 490 nm (λex = 420 nm) at both neutral and mildly acidic pH levels that are characteristic of tumor tissues. Encouraged by the favorable properties of the material, we incubated HeLa cells pre-treated in either hypoxic or normoxic conditions with NI-COF. Fluorescence microscopy images demonstrated that the material was preferentially taken up by hypoxic cells, which showed higher fluorescence signal in their interior than cells cultured under normoxia conditions. It is anticipated that this study will stimulate further developments of COFs for imaging various biological conditions.
Keywords: hypoxia, fluorescence, covalent organic frameworks, imaging, tumor cells
Published in RUNG: 19.09.2023; Views: 76; Downloads: 0
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Covalent organic frameworks for fluorescent imaging of hypoxia
Tina Skorjanc, Dinesh Shetty, Gregor Mali, Damjan Makuc, Martina Bergan Marušič, Matjaz Valant, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: hypoxia, covalent organic frameworks, imaging, fluorescence, post-synthetic modification
Published in RUNG: 06.06.2023; Views: 405; Downloads: 0
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Optical emission diagnosis of carbon nanoparticle incorporated chlorophyll for sensing applications
Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, RAJ VIMAL, SARITHA DEVI H V, Sankararaman S, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Chlorophyll fluorescence (Chl F) is widely used in sensing applications to understand terrestrial vegetation and environmental and climatic variations. The increasing rates of industrialization and carbon emission from internal combustion engines (ICEs) pose a threat to sustainable development. This study analyses the impact of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) from ICEs on the optical absorption and fluorescence emission of leaf pigments. Leaf pigments without and with CNPs were subjected to UV-visible and photo-luminescence (PL) spectroscopy analyses. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of CNPs showed their morphology. The Jablonski diagram of the CNP-incorporated chlorophyll system helped in understanding the fluorescence emission,internal conversion, and the exchange of energy between them. The variations in (i) total chlorophyll, (ii) optical absorbance by total chlorophyll, (iii) PL emission peak (at 675 nm and 718 nm) intensities for different excitation wavelengths, and (iv) normalized absorbance at the PL emission peaks with different CNP concentrations were analysed by dividing into three regions. In Region I (0–0.625 mg ml−1 ), the radiative component dominated the nonradiative component as a result of energy transfer from CNPs to chlorophyll. In Region II (0.625–1.2 mg ml−1 ), the increase in CNP concentration initiated diffusion into chloroplasts, resulting in the increase in the nonradiative part of total energy and decrease in PL peak intensity. In Region III (1.2–2.5 mg ml−1 ), the energy absorbed by the CNPs dissipated more nonradiatively, leading to a slow rate of increase in the radiative part. The visual response of PL emission, color purity, and the distribution of the emitted energy over the spectrum studied with the help of CIE plots, power spectrum, and confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed the fluorescence emission in the red region. This study suggests the possibility of employing Chl F in agricultural, environmental, and biological fields for sensing applications.
Keywords: carbon nanoparticle, optical emission, fluorescence
Published in RUNG: 05.07.2022; Views: 652; Downloads: 0
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Tunable fluorescence from natural carbon source- Pandanus
Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, SARITHA DEVI H V, AMBADAS G, Sankararaman S, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Carbon materials possessing photoluminescence properties are considered as potential candidates in a wide range of photonic and optoelectronic applications. In this work, the cellulose derived from the natural source, Pandanus, is autoclave-treated for the synthesis of fluorescent carbon. The natural fibres are greatly preferred over synthetic ones due to their cost-effectiveness, easy processability, non-abrasivity, non-toxic and environment-friendly characteristics along with high mechanical strength and damage tolerance. These properties enable them to be used as templates for synthesis, as important reinforcement materials for commercial thermoplastics and for making value-added products. In this study, the synthesised sample is subjected to structural, morphological, elemental and optical characterisations. These studies reveal that the sample can be used as a low-cost tunable light-emitting source for photonic, biomedical and biosensing applications.
Keywords: Fluorescence, Pandanus, natural carbon, cellulose
Published in RUNG: 04.07.2022; Views: 635; Downloads: 0
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From futile to fruitful: Diesel soot as white light emitter
Swapna Mohanachandran Nair Sindhu, Sankararaman S, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: The present work describes a solution for the effective use of the hazardous particulate matter (diesel soot) from the internal combustion engines (ICEs) as a potential material emitting white light for white light emitting diodes (WLEDs). The washed soot samples are subjected to Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), High- Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), UV-Visible, Photoluminescent (PL) Spectroscopy and quantum yield measurements. The CIE plot and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) reveals the white fluorescence on photoexcitation. The sample on ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation, provides a visual confirmation of white light emission from the sample. The diesel soot collected from public transport buses of different years of manufacture invariably exhibit white fluorescence at an excitation of 350 nm. The sample show a quantum yield of 47.09%. The study is significant in the context of pollution and search for low-cost, rare-earth phosphor free material for white light emission and thereby turning the hazardous, futile material into a fruitful material that can be used for potential applications in photonics and electronics.
Keywords: White light emitter, Diesel soot, CIE plot, Quantum yield, Fluorescence
Published in RUNG: 30.06.2022; Views: 674; Downloads: 0
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Impact of microplastics on growth, photosynthesis and essential elements in Cucurbita pepo L.
Ilaria Colzi, Luciana Renna, Elisabetta Bianchi, Maria Beatrice Castellani, Andrea Coppi, Sara Pignattelli, Stefano Loppi, Cristina Gonnelli, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: In this study, Cucurbita pepo L., one of the most cultivated, consumed and economically important crop worldwide, was used as model plant to test the toxic effects of the four most abundant microplastics identified in contaminated soils, i.e. polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyvinylchloride (PVC), and polyethyleneterephthalate (PET). Cucurbita plants were grown in pots with increasing concentrations of the microplastics, then plant biometry, photosynthetic parameters and ionome of treated vs. untreated samples were compared to evaluate the toxicity of each plastic. All the pollutants impaired root and, especially, shoot growth. Specific and concentration-dependant effects of the different microplastics were found, including reduction in leaf size, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency, as well as changes in the micro- and macro-elemental profile. Among all the microplastics, PVC was identified as the most toxic and PE as the less toxic material. PVC decreased the dimensions of the leaf lamina, the values of the photosynthetic performance index and the plant iron concentration to a higher extent in respect to the other treatments. Microplastic toxicity exerted on the growth of C. pepo raises concerns about possible yield and economic loss, as well as for risks of a possible transfer into the food chain.
Keywords: microplastic toxicity, leaf traits, chlorophyll fluorescence, ionome, zucchini
Published in RUNG: 17.12.2021; Views: 1137; Downloads: 6
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