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1.
Highlights from the Telescope Array Experiment
J. Kim, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution (invited lecture)

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) observatory in the Northern Hemisphere. Together with the TA Low Energy Extension (TALE), TA×4, and TALE infill detector, the TA measures the properties of UHECR-induced extensive air showers (EAS) in the energy region from 10^15 eV to over 10^20 eV. Each of these uses a hybrid system with an array of scintillators to sample the footprint of the EAS at the Earth’s surface along with telescopes that measure the fluorescence and Cherenkov light from the EAS. The statistics at the highest energies are being enhanced with the TA×4 detector, half completed but still under construction, which will quadruple the surface detector area with telescopes. The TALE infill surface detectors were recently deployed to further lower the hybrid energy threshold of TALE. We present the status of the experiment and recent results on the energy spectrum, mass composition, and anisotropy, including new features in the energy spectrum at about 10^19.2 eV and in the UHECR arrival direction anisotropy.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, surface detection, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition, anisotropy
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 1023; Downloads: 6
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2.
Effect of optical properties of FDs on reconstruction analysis
Daiki Sato, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The TA experiment uses fluorescence telescopes to observe cosmic ray air showers. The telescope camera uses PMTs as Pixels. The telescope’s PMT pointing direction has an uncertainty of 0.1°, and more precise measurements of the telescope's optical properties are needed to more accurately reconstruct the cosmic ray air showers. We have developed the Opt-copter which is a light source mounted on a drone that can be flown within the telescope's field of view. Observational experiments with the Opt-copter have provided a more accurate analysis of the telescope viewing direction. In this study, we estimate the effect of this measurement of accurate telescope viewing direction on the reconstruction of cosmic ray air showers.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, calibration, Xmax
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 1110; Downloads: 6
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3.
Systematic uncertainty in the analysis of the TA fluorescence detector from fluorescence yield models
Kohei Komori, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Ultra-high energy cosmic rays have been observed by various experiments such as Telescope Array (TA) and the Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger). There are differences in the energy spectra measured by TA and Auger. One reason for this difference is systematic uncertainty in the energy determination. The fluorescence yield model, which consists of fluorescence emission efficiencies and spectra, is one of the most significant components of this systematic uncertainty. Fluorescence emission efficiencies and spectra have been measured in various experiments, and different measurements are currently used to determine the energy of the TA and Auger experiments. In this study, we estimate the influence of the fluorescence yield model on the systematic uncertainty in the energy determination of the TA fluorescence detector.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, fluorescence yield, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy uncertainty
Published in RUNG: 09.10.2023; Views: 1188; Downloads: 5
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4.
Monocular and hybrid analysis for TA×4 fluorescence detectors
Yuki Kusumori, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The TA×4 project is an extension of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, aimed at clarifying the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. It has deployed 4 fluorescence detectors (FDs) and 130 surface detectors (SDs) at the northeast lobe of the original TA array and 8 FDs and 127 SDs at the southeast lobe of the original TA array, expanding the detection area about four times larger than the TA experiment. This expansion enables us to sample larger data. The TA×4 has been collecting data to obtain solid evidence of the excess of events in the arrival direction distribution, known as the TA hotspot, reported in 2014 by the TA experiment. The north and south observations began in 2018 and 2019, respectively, and are ongoing except for a hiatus from February to June 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this presentation, we will report the details of TA×4 FD monocular analysis.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition
Published in RUNG: 09.10.2023; Views: 1021; Downloads: 6
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5.
A study of the systematic effects on the energy scale for the measurement of UHECR spectrum by the TA SD array
Keitaro Fujita, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: We evaluated the systematic deviation of energy scales for the energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays observed by the Telescope Array Surface Detector array due to differences in atmospheric fluorescence yield and missing energy estimation. The energy dependence on the energy scales is also investigated and observationally confirmed by the constant intensity cut method analysis. The results of these studies will be presented.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, fluorescence yield, missing energy, systematics
Published in RUNG: 09.10.2023; Views: 988; Downloads: 4
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6.
Cosmic ray mass composition measurement with the TALE hybrid detector
K. Fujita, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: We report on the cosmic ray mass composition measured by the Telescope Array Low-energy Extension (TALE) hybrid detector. The TALE detector consists of a Fluorescence Detector (FD) station with 10 FD telescopes located at the TA Middle Drum FD Station (itself made up of 14 FD telescopes), and a Surface Detector (SD) array of scintillation counters. The SD array consists of 40 counters with 400 m spacing and 40 counters with 600 m spacing. The FD station, with a total of 24 telescopes, overlooks the SD array and provides sky coverage with an elevation angle range of 3∘ to 59∘. In this contribution, we will present the latest result of the cosmic ray mass composition measurement in the energy range from 10^16.5 eV to 10^18.5 eV using almost 5 years of TALE hybrid data.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, infill array, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition
Published in RUNG: 09.10.2023; Views: 997; Downloads: 6
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7.
Telescope Array Cloud Ranging Test
T. Okuda, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment detects air-showers induced by ultra high energy cosmic rays. The TA atmospheric Fluorescence telescopic Detector(TAFD) observes cosmic ray airshower, which is incident very far from the telescope. The observation does not take place in overcast night. However, the cloud status changes quickly and sometimes there are some isolated clouds. If the cloud is behind the airshower as viewed from the TAFD, the cloud presents no problem for airshower reconstruction. However if the cloud obscures the airshower, it does create a problem for airshower reconstruction. The problematic event can be rejected by airshower profile at reconstruction. However, the estimation of exposure with isolated cloud is difficult. And it should be affected more at higher energy event with relatively further from the telescope, which is lower statistics and more important for the ultra high energy cosmic ray physics. Therefore, to test the method for evaluating the correction of exposure, we installed stereo cloud cameras near one of FD sites. I report the status of the study of the Telescope Array Cloud Ranging Test.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, atmosphere, cloud detection, exposure, air shower reconstruction
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1334; Downloads: 7
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8.
FOV direction and image size calibration of Fluorescence Detector using light source on UAV
A. Nakazawa, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: In the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, we have been observing cosmic rays using a Fluorescence Detector (FD). More than 10 years have passed since we started this observation, and the accuracy of the observation has become more important than ever. We have developed the "Opt-copter" as a calibration device for the FDs. The Opt-copter is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a light source and can fly freely within the FD's field of view (FOV). In addition, the Opt-copter is equipped with a high-precision RTK-GPS, which enables it to accurately determine the position of the light source in flight. With this device, we can obtain detailed information on the optical characteristics of the FD. So far, we have reported on the configuration of the device and the analysis of the FOV direction. In this presentation, we will report on the new FOV analysis and image size analysis.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, light source, calibration, UAV, FOV
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1229; Downloads: 7
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9.
Monte Carlo simulations for the Pierre Auger Observatory using the VO auger grid resources
E. Santos, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Pierre Auger Observatory, located near Malargüe, Argentina, is the world’s largest cosmic-ray detector. It comprises a 3000 km^2 surface detector and 27 fluorescence telescopes, which measure the lateral and longitudinal distributions of the many millions of air-shower particles produced in the interactions initiated by a cosmic ray in the Earth’s atmosphere. The determination of the nature of cosmic rays and studies of the detector performances rely on extensive Monte Carlo simulations describing the physics processes occurring in extensive air showers and the detector responses. The aim of the Monte Carlo simulations task is to produce and provide the Auger Collaboration with reference libraries used in a wide variety of analyses. All multipurpose detector simulations are currently produced in local clusters using Slurm and HTCondor. The bulk of the shower simulations are produced on the grid, via the Virtual Organization auger, using the DIRAC middleware. The job submission is made via python scripts using the DIRAC-API. The Auger site is undergoing a major upgrade, which includes the installation of new types of detectors, demanding increased simulation resources. The novel detection of the radio component of extensive air showers is the most challenging endeavor, requiring dedicated shower simulations with very long computation times, not optimized for the grid production. For data redundancy, the simulations are stored on the Lyon server and the grid Disk Pool Manager and are accessible to the Auger members via iRODS and DIRAC, respectively. The CERN VMFile System is used for software distribution where, soon, the Auger Offline software will also be made available.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, surface detection, radio detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, Monte Carlo simulation, computing resources, compute clusters, high capacity storage
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1007; Downloads: 7
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10.
Satellite Data for Atmospheric Monitoring at the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Puyleart, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Atmospheric monitoring over the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory can be supplemented by satellite data. Methods for night-time cloud detection and aerosol cross-checking were created using the GOES-16 and Aeolus satellites, respectively. The geostationary GOES-16 satellite provides a 100% up-time view of the cloud cover over the observatory. GOES-13 was used until the end of 2017 for cloud monitoring, but with its retirement a method based on GOES-16 data was developed. The GOES-16 cloud detection method matches the observatory’s vertical laser cloud detection method at a rate of ∼90%. The Aeolus satellite crosses the Pierre Auger Observatory several times throughout the year firing UV-laser shots. The laser beams leave a track of scattered light in the atmosphere that can be observed by the light sensors of the observatory fluorescence telescopes. Using a parametric model of the aerosol concentration, the laser shots can be reconstructed with different combinations of the aerosol parameters. A minimization procedure then yields the parameter set that best describes the aerosol attenuation. Furthermore, the possibility of studying horizontal homogeneity of aerosols across the array is being investigated.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, atmospheric monitoring, satellite monitoring, cloud detection, aerosols, UV laser shots
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1189; Downloads: 6
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