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11.
Update of the Offline Framework for AugerPrime
L. Nellen, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Work on the Offline Framework for the Pierre Auger Observatory was started in 2003 to create a universal framework for event reconstruction and simulation. The development and installation of the AugerPrime upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory require an update of the Offline Framework to handle the additional detector components and the upgraded Surface Detector Electronics. The design of the Offline Framework proved to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the changes needed to be able to handle the AugerPrime detector. This flexibility has been a goal since the development of the code started. The framework separates data structures from processing modules. The detector components map directly onto data structures. It was straightforward to update or add processing modules to handle the additional information from the new detectors. We will discuss the general structure of the Offline Framework, explaining the design decisions that provided its flexibility and point out the few of the features of the original design that required deeper changes, which could have been avoided in hindsight. Given the disruptive nature of the AugerPrime upgrade, the developers decided that the update for AugerPrime was the moment to change also the language standard for the implementation and move to the latest version of C++, to break strict backward compatibility eliminating deprecated interfaces, and to modernize the development infrastructure. We will discuss the changes that were made to the structure in general and the modules that were added to the framework to handle the new detector components.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, event reconstruction, simulation, software framework
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1206; Downloads: 5
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12.
The upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory with the Scintillator Surface Detector.
G. Cataldi, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Since its full commissioning in 2008, the Pierre Auger Observatory has consistently demonstrated its scientific productivity. A major upgrade of the Surface Detector array (SD) improves the capabilities of measuring the different components of extensive air showers. One of the elements of the upgrade consists of new Scintillator Surface Detectors (SSD) placed on top of the Water-Cherenkov stations of the SD. At the Observatory, the integration of the SSD components and their deployment in the array is well advanced. In this paper, the main challenges and characteristics of the construction and installation will be reviewed. Started in 2016, an Engineering Array of twelve upgraded stations has been taking data in the field. In March 2019, a preproduction array of 77 SSDs started data acquisition with an adapted version of non-upgraded electronics. It is collecting events and proving the goodness of SSD design. Since December 2020, the upgraded electronics boards are being deployed in the field together with the photomultiplier tubes, increasing the number of SSD detectors, which are taking data continuosly with good stability. In this paper, the-long term performance of a subset of stations acquiring data for more than two years will be discussed. The data collected so far demonstrate the quality of the new detectors and the physics potential of the upgrade project
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, scintillator surface detectors, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 921; Downloads: 5
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13.
Telescope Array Surface Detector Energy and Arrival Direction Estimation Using Deep Learning
O. Kalashev, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: A novel ultra-high-energy cosmic rays energy and arrival direction reconstruction method for Telescope Array surface detector is presented. The analysis is based on a deep convolutional neural network using detector signal time series as the input and the network is trained on a large Monte-Carlo dataset. This method is compared in terms of statistical and systematic energy and arrival direction determination errors with the standard Telescope Array surface detector event reconstruction procedure.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy, arrival directions, reconstruction, machine learning, neural network
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1012; Downloads: 6
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14.
The status of the TALE surface detector array and TALE infill project
A. Iwasakia, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Routine hybrid observations of the surface detectors (SD) in conjunction with the fluorescence detectors (FD) of the Telescope Array Low-energy Extension (TALE) began in November 2018. In this presentation, we will describe the simulation studies of detector aperture and resolution of the TALE SD, and report on the latest observation results other than the energy spectrum. We are also in the process of expanding the experiment by 50 SDs, with even smaller nearest-neighbor spacing, in order lower the energy threshold to match that of the Cherenkov-dominated events seen by the FD. Details of the upgrade and expected performance of this new extension will be discussed.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, surface detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1028; Downloads: 81
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15.
First results from the AugerPrime Radio Detector
T. Fodran, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Pierre Auger Observatory investigates the properties of the highest-energy cosmic rays with unprecedented precision. The aim of the AugerPrime upgrade is to improve the sensitivity to the primary particle type. The improved mass sensitivity is the key to exploring the origin of the highest-energy particles in the Universe. The purpose of the Radio Detector (as part of AugerPrime) is to extend the sensitivity of the mass measurements to zenith angles in the range from 65° to 85°. A radio antenna, sensitive in two polarization directions and covering a bandwidth from 30 to 80 MHz, will be added to each of the 1661 surface detector stations over the full 3000 km^2 area, forming the world’s largest radio array for the detection of cosmic particles. Since November 2019, an engineering array comprised of ten stations has been installed in the field. The radio antennas are calibrated using the Galactic (diffuse) emission. The sidereal modulation of this signal is monitored continuously and is used to obtain an end-to-end calibration from the receiving antenna to the ADC in the read-out electronics. The calibration method and first results will be presented. The engineering array is also fully integrated in the data acquisition of the Observatory and records air showers regularly. The first air showers detected simultaneously with the water-Cherenkov detectors and the Radio Detectors will be presented. Simulations of the detected showers, based on the reconstructed quantities, have been conducted with CORSIKA/CoREAS. A comparison of the measured radio signals with those predicted by simulations exhibits satisfying agreement.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, indirect detection, radio detection, radio antenna array, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, galactic radio emission
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 937; Downloads: 6
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16.
Update on the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy search at the highest energies by the Telescope Array Experiment
T. Fujii, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The study of large-scale anisotropy at the highest energies is essential for understanding the transition from cosmic rays of galactic origin to those of extra-galactic origin, along with the magnetic fields in the galaxy and those beyond. Motivated by a significant detection of the large-scale anisotropy above 8 EeV by the Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger), we had previously reported, using 11 years of Telescope Array (TA) surface array data, a result compatible both with that of Auger, and with an isotropic source distribution [R. U. Abbasi et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 898, L28 (2020)]. In this contribution, we will show the preliminary updated results using 12 years TA SD data to search for the large-scale anisotropy at the highest energies.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, large-scale, dipole
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1017; Downloads: 4
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17.
UHECR mass composition from anisotropy of their arrival directions with the Telescope Array SD
M. Kuznetsov, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: We propose a new method for the estimation of ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) mass composition from a distribution of their arrival directions. The method employs a test statistic (TS) based on a characteristic deflection of UHECR events with respect to the distribution of luminous matter in the local Universe modeled with a flux-weighed 2MRS catalog. Making realistic simulations of the mock UHECR sets, we show that this TS is robust to the presence of galactic and non-extreme extra-galactic magnetic fields and sensitive to the mass composition of events in a set. We apply the method to Telescope Array surface detector data for 11 years and derive new independent constraints on fraction of protons and iron in p-Fe mix at E>10 EeV. At 10100 EeV --- pure iron or even more massive composition. This result is in tension with Auger composition model inferred from spectrum-Xmax fit at 2.7σ (2.0σ) for PT'11 (JF'12) regular GMF model.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, anisotropy, magnetic fields, 2MRS
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1048; Downloads: 5
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18.
Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross Section with Telescope Arrays Black Rock, Long Ridge, and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode.
R. Abbasi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) detectors have been reporting on the proton-air cross section measurement beyond the capability of particle accelerators since 1984. The knowledge of this fundamental particle property is vital for our understanding of high energy particle interactions and could possibly hold the key to new physics. The data used in this work was collected over eight years using the hybrid events of Black Rock (BR) and Long Ridge (LR) fluorescence detectors as well as the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD). The proton-air cross section is determined at s√=73~TeV by fitting the exponential tail of the Xmax distribution of these events. The proton-air cross section is then inferred from the exponential tail fit and from the most updated high energy interaction models. σ^inel_p−air is observed to be 520.1±35.8 [Stat.] +25.3−42.9 [Sys.] mb. This is the second proton-air cross section work reported by the Telescope Array collaboration.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, Xmax, proton-air cross-section, high energy particle interaction
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 1067; Downloads: 4
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19.
Observation of Variations in Cosmic Ray Shower Rates During Thunderstorms and Implications for Large-Scale Electric Field Changes
R. Abbasi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: This work presents the first observation by the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD) of the effect of thunderstorms on the development of the cosmic ray showers. Observations of variations in the cosmic ray showers, using the TASD, allows us to study the electric field inside thunderstorms on a large scale without dealing with all the limitation of narrow exposure in time and space using balloons and aircraft detectors. In this work, observations of variations in the cosmic ray shower intensity (ΔN/N) using the TASD, was studied and found to be on average at the (1−2)% level. These observations where found to be both negative and positive in polarity. They were found to be correlated with lightning but also with thunderstorms. The size of the footprint of these variations on the ground ranged from (4-24) km in diameter and lasted for 10s of minutes. Dependence of (ΔN/N) on the electric field inside thunderstorms, in this work, is derived from CORSIKA simulations.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, shower profile, lightning, atmospheric electric fields
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 863; Downloads: 5
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20.
Mass composition anisotropy with the Telescope Array Surface Detector data
Y. Zhezher, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Mass composition anisotropy is predicted by a number of theories describing sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Event-by-event determination of a type of a primary cosmic-ray particle is impossible due to large shower-to-shower fluctuations, and the mass composition usually is obtained by averaging over some composition-sensitive observable determined independently for each extensive air shower (EAS) over a large number of events. In the present study we propose to employ the observable ξ used in the TA mass composition analysis for the mass composition anisotropy analysis. The ξ variable is determined with the use of Boosted Decision Trees (BDT) technique trained with the Monte-Carlo sets, and the ξ value is assigned for each event, where ξ=1 corresponds to an event initiated by the primary iron nuclei and ξ=−1 corresponds to a proton event. Use of ξ distributions obtained for the Monte-Carlo sets allows us to separate proton and iron candidate events from a data set with some given accuracy and study its distributions over the observed part of the sky. Results for the TA SD 11-year data set mass composition anisotropy will be presented.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, anisotropy, machine learning, boosted decision tree
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 893; Downloads: 5
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