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1.
Highlights from the Telescope Array Experiment
J. Kim, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution (invited lecture)

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) observatory in the Northern Hemisphere. Together with the TA Low Energy Extension (TALE), TA×4, and TALE infill detector, the TA measures the properties of UHECR-induced extensive air showers (EAS) in the energy region from 10^15 eV to over 10^20 eV. Each of these uses a hybrid system with an array of scintillators to sample the footprint of the EAS at the Earth’s surface along with telescopes that measure the fluorescence and Cherenkov light from the EAS. The statistics at the highest energies are being enhanced with the TA×4 detector, half completed but still under construction, which will quadruple the surface detector area with telescopes. The TALE infill surface detectors were recently deployed to further lower the hybrid energy threshold of TALE. We present the status of the experiment and recent results on the energy spectrum, mass composition, and anisotropy, including new features in the energy spectrum at about 10^19.2 eV and in the UHECR arrival direction anisotropy.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, surface detection, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition, anisotropy
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 992; Downloads: 6
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2.
Measurement of cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra from the ISS-CREAM experiment
G. H. Choi, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station (ISS-CREAM) experiment successfully recorded data for 539 days from Aug. 2017 to Feb. 2019. The ISS-CREAM instrument consists of a Silicon Charge Detector (SCD), carbon targets, a calorimeter (CAL), a top counting detector (TCD), a bottom counting detector (BCD), and a boronated scintillator detector (BSD). In this analysis, the SCD was used for the charge measurements. It comprises four layers, and each SCD layer is finely segmented with 2,688 silicon pixels to minimize charge misidentification due to the backscattered particles. The CAL was used for the energy measurements. It comprises 20 layers of tungsten/scintillating fibers. Each tungsten/scintillating-fiber layer consists of a 50 cm × 50 cm × 3.5 mm tungsten plate, followed by a layer of fifty 1 cm-wide 50 cm-long scintillating-fiber ribbons. The CAL also provides the incident cosmic-ray track and the high-energy trigger. For the low-energy trigger, the TCD and BCD were used. In this paper, we present the proton spectrum from the ISS-CREAM experiment in the energy range of 1.6 - 655 TeV and the preliminary helium spectrum in the energy range of 2.7 TeV - 1.1 PeV
Keywords: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 1046; Downloads: 6
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3.
Effects of atmospheric transparency on Telescope Array air shower analysis
K. Mizuno, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment continues to observe Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) both with its original TA detectors as well as with the new TAx4 expansion detectors. These observations employ Fluorescence Detectors (FDs) to capture the air shower induced by the primary UHECRs. The FD observes fluorescence light emitted from atmospheric nitrogen molecules excited by air shower particles. Observation of the FD extends over tens of kilometers, and the fluorescence light is attenuated by scattering from atmospheric molecules and aerosols during the propagation process. Seasonal dependence was found when evaluating the attenuation of fluorescence by aerosols. We will report on the effects of this seasonal dependence on TA air shower analysis.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 1065; Downloads: 6
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4.
Updates of the surface detector array of the TAx4 experiment
Eiji Kido, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The TAx4 experiment plans to realize an Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) detection area four times larger than that of the TA experiment. TAx4 will include five hundreds new surface detectors (SD) spaced at 2.08 km and two new fluorescence detectors (FD), which provides hybrid observation of UHECRs. We deployed 257 SDs in 2019 and completed building 2 FD stations in 2020, all operating stably. The data acquisition of the SDs is made via six communication towers, and inter-tower triggers have been recently implemented.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 901; Downloads: 6
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5.
Anisotropies in the arrival direction distribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays measured by the Telescope Array surface detector
Jihyun Kim, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are extremely energetic, charged particles with energies greater than 10^18 eV, originating from outer space. We investigate anisotropic patterns in the arrival direction distribution of UHECRs to identify their source locations. The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, the largest UHECR observatory in the northern hemisphere, has observed evidence of two intermediate-scale anisotropies in UHECR arrival direction distributions: the TA Hotspot and the Perseus-Pisces supercluster excess. In this presentation, we will describe an oversampling analysis that we performed to find the excess of events using the data measured by the TA surface detector array. We will report the latest results of the TA Hotspot and Perseus-Pisces supercluster excesses.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 894; Downloads: 4
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6.
High-speed video camera observations associated with a terrestrial gamma-ray flash at the Telescope Array Detector
R. Abbasi, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: This work presents observations of the optical emission of a lightning flash in conjunction with a downward-directed Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) at the Telescope Array detector. Previously in ICRC-2021, we reported joint observations by the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD), the Lightning Mapping Array, a sferic sensor, and a broadband interferometer of particle showers in coincidence with lightning. These observations consisted of energetic showers of approximately less than 10-microsecond duration with footprints on the ground of 3-6 kilometers in diameter, originating in the first one to two milliseconds of downward lightning leaders and in coincidence with the initial breakdown pulses stage of negative cloud-to-ground lighting leaders. Scintillator waveform and simulation studies confirmed that these showers must consist primarily of gamma radiations. In this work, we use the TASD detector, together with a high-speed video camera, in conjunction with multiple lightning instruments at the TASD site, to report on the optical emission associated with a downward-directed terrestrial gamma-ray flash. Results from this study allow us to further the understanding of the initiation and propagation mechanism of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. It will also further our ability to compare the most recent satellite optical emissions counterpart of upward-directed TGFs to that of downward-directed TGFs.
Keywords: Telescope Array, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 881; Downloads: 5
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7.
Measurement of cosmic-ray energy spectrum with the TALE detector in hybrid mode
H. Oshima, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The TA Low-energy Extension (TALE) experiment extends the low-energy side of the TA experiment below 10^15 eV. A main objective of TALE is to study the transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. The TALE detector is a hybrid observatory composed of fluorescence telescopes and a surface detector array of scintillation counters. The surface detectors are arranged with inter-counter spacing of 400 and 600 meters, suitable for hybrid energy spectrum measurements in the low-energy region. We measured the energy spectrum using data collected during 429 hours of observation by the TALE hybrid detector. This energy spectrum measurement will play an important role in understanding the transition from cosmic rays of galactic origin to those of extragalactic origin.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection
Published in RUNG: 10.10.2023; Views: 976; Downloads: 4
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8.
Monocular and hybrid analysis for TA×4 fluorescence detectors
Yuki Kusumori, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The TA×4 project is an extension of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, aimed at clarifying the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. It has deployed 4 fluorescence detectors (FDs) and 130 surface detectors (SDs) at the northeast lobe of the original TA array and 8 FDs and 127 SDs at the southeast lobe of the original TA array, expanding the detection area about four times larger than the TA experiment. This expansion enables us to sample larger data. The TA×4 has been collecting data to obtain solid evidence of the excess of events in the arrival direction distribution, known as the TA hotspot, reported in 2014 by the TA experiment. The north and south observations began in 2018 and 2019, respectively, and are ongoing except for a hiatus from February to June 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this presentation, we will report the details of TA×4 FD monocular analysis.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition
Published in RUNG: 09.10.2023; Views: 990; Downloads: 6
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9.
Cosmic ray energy spectrum and mass composition with the TALE fluorescence detector
T. Abu-Zayyad, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) cosmic rays detector located in the State of Utah in the United States is the largest ultra high energy cosmic rays detector in the northern hemisphere. The Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) fluorescence detector (FD) was added to TA in order to lower the detector's energy threshold, and has succeeded in measuring the cosmic rays energy spectrum down to PeV energies, by making use of the direct Cherenkov light produced by air showers. In this contribution we present the results of a measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum and mass composition using TALE FD data collected over a period of ∼8 years. This contribution provides an update to results on the cosmic-ray energy spectrum and mass composition presented at this conference in 2021. The update includes data collected during 16 additional months of observation and an updated detector simulation sets.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection
Published in RUNG: 09.10.2023; Views: 880; Downloads: 6
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10.
Cosmic ray mass composition measurement with the TALE hybrid detector
K. Fujita, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: We report on the cosmic ray mass composition measured by the Telescope Array Low-energy Extension (TALE) hybrid detector. The TALE detector consists of a Fluorescence Detector (FD) station with 10 FD telescopes located at the TA Middle Drum FD Station (itself made up of 14 FD telescopes), and a Surface Detector (SD) array of scintillation counters. The SD array consists of 40 counters with 400 m spacing and 40 counters with 600 m spacing. The FD station, with a total of 24 telescopes, overlooks the SD array and provides sky coverage with an elevation angle range of 3∘ to 59∘. In this contribution, we will present the latest result of the cosmic ray mass composition measurement in the energy range from 10^16.5 eV to 10^18.5 eV using almost 5 years of TALE hybrid data.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, infill array, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition
Published in RUNG: 09.10.2023; Views: 948; Downloads: 6
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