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TeV dark matter search at the Galactic center with the CTA
Gabrijela Zaharijas, unpublished invited conference lecture

Keywords: gamma rays, dark matter, Cherenkov Telescope Array
Published in RUNG: 16.05.2020; Views: 2683; Downloads: 0
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Search forγ-ray emission from dark matter particle interactions from theAndromeda and Triangulum galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
Gabrijela Zaharijas, 2019, original scientific article

Keywords: gamma rays, dark matter
Published in RUNG: 20.02.2020; Views: 2586; Downloads: 0
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Uranium bearing dissolved organic matter in the porewaters of uranium contaminated lake sediments
Breda Novotnik, Wei Chen, R. Douglas Evans, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Uranium (U) mobility in the environment strongly depends on its oxidation state and the presence of complexing agents such as inorganic carbon, phosphates, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Despite the importance of DOM in U mobility, the exact mechanism is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of our investigation was to characterise sediment porewater DOM in two lakes in Ontario, Canada (Bow and Bentley Lakes) that were historically contaminated with U and propose possible composition of UO2-bearing DOM. Depth profiles of U concentrations in porewaters and total sediment digests reveal U levels of up to 1.3 mg L−1 in porewater and up to 0.8 mg−1 g in sediment. Depth profiles of U did not correlate with Fe, Mn, SO4 2−, or Eh profiles. Therefore, porewater DOM was analysed and taken into consideration as the primary source of U mobility. Porewater DOM in each sediment section (1 cm sections, 20 cm core length) was analysed by high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. PCA analyses of porewater DOM mass spectra showed grouping and clear separation of DOM in sediment sections with elevated U concentrations in comparison to sections with background U concentrations. Several criteria were set to characterise UO2-bearing DOM and more than 70 different molecules were found. The vast majority of these UO2-DOM compounds fell in the category of carboxyl-containing aliphatic molecules (H/C between 0.85 and 1.2 and O/C≤0.4) and had a mean value of m/z about 720.
Keywords: Uranium Lake sediments Porewater Disolved organic matter High resolution mass spectrometry
Published in RUNG: 09.10.2019; Views: 3280; Downloads: 0
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The Dark Matter Programme of the Cherenkov Telescope Array
A. Morselli, Christopher Eckner, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2017, published scientific conference contribution

Keywords: dark matter, CTA, gamma rays
Published in RUNG: 16.02.2018; Views: 3293; Downloads: 153
.pdf Full text (769,34 KB)

M31 gamma-ray emission - a closer look at different explanations
Christopher Eckner, Pasquale D. Serpico, Jovana Petrovic, Tijana Prodanovic, 2017, published scientific conference contribution

Keywords: Milky Way, M31, gamma-rays, millisecond pulsars, dark matter
Published in RUNG: 30.01.2018; Views: 4041; Downloads: 149
.pdf Full text (773,73 KB)

Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh
Raphael Ferretti, R. Amanullah, Ariel Goobar, Joel Johansson, Tanja Petrushevska, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims. To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all of which occurred during relatively late phases of the supernova (SN) evolution. Photoionisation, however, is predicted to occur during the early phases of SNe Ia, when the supernovae peak in the ultraviolet. We attempt, therefore, to observe early-time absorption-line variations by obtaining high-resolution spectra of SNe before maximum light. Methods. We have obtained photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of SNe Ia 2013gh and iPTF 13dge, to search for absorptionline variations. Furthermore, we study interstellar absorption features in relation to the observed photometric colours of the SNe. Results. Both SNe display deep Na I D and Ca II H&K absorption features. Furthermore, small but significant variations are detected in a feature of the Na I D profile of SN 2013gh. The variations are consistent with either geometric effects of rapidly moving or patchy gas clouds or photoionisation of Na I gas at R ≈ 1019 cm from the explosion. Conclusions. Our analysis indicates that it is necessary to focus on early phases to detect photoionisation effects of gases in the circumstellar medium of SNe Ia. Different absorbers such as Na I and Ca II can be used to probe for matter at different distances from the SNe. The nondetection of variations during early phases makes it possible to put limits on the abundance of the species at those distances.
Keywords: supernovae: general – supernovae: individual: SN 2013gh – dust, extinction – circumstellar matter – supernovae: individual: iPTF 13dge
Published in RUNG: 23.01.2018; Views: 3571; Downloads: 0
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Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 μm
Rahman Amanullah, Tanja Petrushevska, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera 3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and NIR data provide complementary information. The combined data set covers the wavelength range 0.2–2 μm. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to E(B − V) = 1.4 mag. We study the wavelength-dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterized by the total-to-selective extinction RV. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with E(B − V) ≳ 1 mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find RV = 1.4 ± 0.1 and RV = 2.8 ± 0.1. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted RV by ∼50 per cent allowing us to also measure RV of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the Universe.
Keywords: circumstellar matter, supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: SNe 2012cg, supernovae: individual: 2012cu, dust, extinction
Published in RUNG: 23.01.2018; Views: 3546; Downloads: 0
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Search for Physics beyond the Standard Model with the CRESST Experiment
2017, master's thesis

Abstract: In spite of the successes of observational astro- and particle physics and cosmology very much of the universe remains unknown. The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory describing the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known. But there is overwhelming evidence, that all the known particles, the ordinary (baryonic) matter, the building blocks of planets, stars and ourselves, only make up about 4.9% of the energy content of the universe. The standard model of cosmology (CDM) indicates that the total mass-energy of the universe contains beside the 4.9% ordinary matter two other components: 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. The accelerating expansion of the Universe is the result of the effect of the dark energy with its most simple form given by a cosmological constant in Einstein's Equation. Dark matter is an unidentified type of matter that is not accounted for by dark energy and neutrinos and is generally believed to be a non-relativistic, charge neutral and non-baryonic new form of matter. Although dark matter has not been directly observed yet, its existence and properties are inferred from its gravitational effects such as the motions of visible matter, gravitational lensing, its influence on the universe's large-scale structure, and its effects in the cosmic microwave background. Thus the search for Dark Matter is the search for physics beyond the standard model. Although the nature of dark matter is yet unknown, its presence is crucial to understanding the future of the universe. The CRESST experiment is searching for direct evidence in the form of a nuclear recoil induced on a scintillating CaWO4 crystal by a dark matter particle, and is installed and taking data underground at Laboratory Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. While both, dark energy and dark matter, have not been detected directly, a class of dark matter particles that interact only via gravity and the weak force, referred to asWeakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), has been established as the leading candidate among the dark matter community. For this thesis a special model of dark matter was studied, namely the dark photon. This thesis provides a detailed description of the calculation of the 90% upper limit on the dark photon kinetic mixing based on data from the second phase of the CRESST experiment. The analysis was carried out in a frequentist approach based on the (unbinned) maximum-likelihood method and likelihood ratios. To make a statement about the calculated result and its quality, the used algorithm had to be tested, what was done with Monte Carlo simulations (pseudo data).
Keywords: astro physics, particle physics, cosmology, universe, Standard Model of particle physics, standard model of cosmology, matter, ordinary matter, dark matter, dark energy, accelerating expansion of the Universe, non-baryonic, new form of matter, gravitational lensing, cosmic microwave background, search for physics beyond the standard model, CRESST experiment, direct detection, CaWO4 crystal, underground laboratory, Laboratory Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, WIMP, dark photon, 90% upper limit, upper limit, kinetic mixing, frequentist approach, unbinned, maximum likelihood
Published in RUNG: 13.10.2017; Views: 4624; Downloads: 0
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