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1.
Identification and detailed characterization of ▫$PM_10$▫ sources in an Alpine valley influenced by a cement plant
Kristina Glojek, Katja Džepina, Griša Močnik, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The contribution of traffic and wood burning to particulate matter (PM) across the Alps is widely recognized and studied (Herich et al., 2014 and references therein; Glojek et al., 2020). However, studies on valleys with cement production are scarce (Kim et al., 2003; Rovira et al., 2018) despite its large PM emissions and potential toxic properties (Erik et al., 2022; Weinbruch et al., 2023). We aim to identify and characterize sources’ contribution to the complex mixture of carbonaceous and mineral PM10 in a representative Alpine valley. Quartz filter samples of PM10 were collected daily from December 2020 to December 2021 and analyzed using different chemical techniques. In the same period equivalent black carbon (eBC) measurements were taken with the Aethalometer AE43. The measured species were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model (EPA PMF 5.0) with newly added tracers, i. e. source-specific eBC (Sandradewi et al., 2008) and organic species (2-MT, 3-MBTCA, phtalic acid, MSA and oxalate). The final PMF results were compared to online PMF-factors (SoFi Pro) derived from PM10 and PM2.5 elemental measurements (Cooper Xact 625i). Ten factors were identified at the site, including commonly detected biomass burning, traffic, nitrate- and sulfate-rich, aged sea salt and mineral dust. With the added additional organic traces, primary biogenic and secondary oxidation were recognized as well. In addition, two unusual factors were disclosed, contributing 10% to annual PM10. Namely, Cl-rich and a mineral dust-rich factor, which we name the cement kiln factor. We associate these two factors to different processes in the cement plant. The outputs of the study provide vital information about the influence of cement production on PM10 concentrations in complex environments and are useful for PM control strategies and actions.
Keywords: PM pollution, carbonaceous aerosols, source apportionment, industry
Published in RUNG: 10.01.2024; Views: 551; Downloads: 0
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Source apportionment study on particulate air pollution in two high-altitude Bolivian cities: La Paz and El Alto
Valeria Mardoñez, Marco Pandolfi, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Andrés Alastuey, Jean-Luc Besombes, Isabel R. Moreno, Noemí Perez, Griša Močnik, Patrick Ginot, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: La Paz and El Alto are two fast-growing, high-altitude Bolivian cities forming the second-largest metropolitan area in the country. Located between 3200 and 4050 m a.s.l. (above sea level), these cities are home to a burgeoning population of approximately 1.8 million residents. The air quality in this conurbation is heavily influenced by urbanization; however, there are no comprehensive studies evaluating the sources of air pollution and their health impacts. Despite their proximity, the substantial variation in altitude, topography, and socioeconomic activities between La Paz and El Alto result in distinct sources, dynamics, and transport of particulate matter (PM). In this investigation, PM10 samples were collected at two urban background stations located in La Paz and El Alto between April 2016 and June 2017. The samples were later analyzed for a wide range of chemical species including numerous source tracers (OC, EC, water-soluble ions, sugar anhydrides, sugar alcohols, trace metals, and molecular organic species). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF v.5.0) receptor model was employed for the source apportionment of PM10. This is one of the first source apportionment studies in South America that incorporates an extensive suite of organic markers, including levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and alkanes, alongside inorganic species. The multisite PMF resolved 11 main sources of PM. The largest annual contribution to PM10 came from the following two major sources: the ensemble of the four vehicular emissions sources (exhaust and non-exhaust), accountable for 35 % and 25 % of the measured PM in La Paz and El Alto, respectively; and dust, which contributed 20 % and 32 % to the total PM mass. Secondary aerosols accounted for 22 % (24 %) in La Paz (El Alto). Agricultural smoke resulting from biomass burning in the Bolivian lowlands and neighboring countries contributed to 9 % (8 %) of the total PM10 mass annually, increasing to 17 % (13 %) between August–October. Primary biogenic emissions were responsible for 13 % (7 %) of the measured PM10 mass. Additionally, a profile associated with open waste burning occurring from May to August was identified. Although this source contributed only to 2 % (5 %) of the total PM10 mass, it constitutes the second largest source of PAHs, which are compounds potentially hazardous to human health. Our analysis additionally resolved two different traffic-related factors, a lubricant source (not frequently identified), and a non-exhaust emissions source. Overall, this study demonstrates that PM10 concentrations in La Paz and El Alto region are predominantly influenced by a limited number of local sources. In conclusion, to improve air quality in both cities, efforts should primarily focus on addressing dust, traffic emissions, open waste burning, and biomass burning.
Keywords: source apportionment, particular air pollution, high altitude, positive matrix factorization, PMF
Published in RUNG: 15.09.2023; Views: 707; Downloads: 4
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European Aerosol Phenomenology - 8: Harmonised Source Apportionment of Organic Aerosol using 22 Year-long ACSM/AMS Datasets
Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, Anna Tobler, Griša Močnik, MaríaCruz Minguillón, André Prévôt, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Organic aerosol (OA) is a key component to total submicron particulate matter (PM1), and comprehensive knowledge of OA sources across Europe is crucial to mitigate PM1 levels. Europe has a well-established air quality research infrastructure from which yearlong datasets using 21 aerosol chemical speciation monitors (ACSMs) and 1 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were gathered during 2013-2019. It includes 9 non-urban and 13 urban sites. This study developed a state-of-the-art source apportionment protocol to analyse long-term OA mass spectrum data by applying the most advanced source apportionment strategies (i.e., rolling PMF, ME-2, and bootstrap). This harmonised protocol was followed strictly for all 22 datasets, making the source apportionment results more comparable. In addition, it enables the quantifications of the most common OA components such as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), cooking-like OA (COA), more oxidised-oxygenated OA (MO-OOA), and less oxidised-oxygenated OA (LO-OOA). Other components such as coal combustion OA (CCOA), solid fuel OA (SFOA: mainly mixture of coal and peat combustion), cigarette smoke OA (CSOA), sea salt (mostly inorganic but part of the OA mass spectrum), coffee OA, and ship industry OA could also be separated at a few specific sites. Oxygenated OA (OOA) components make up most of the submicron OA mass (average = 71.1%, range from 43.7 to 100%). Solid fuel combustion-related OA components (i.e., BBOA, CCOA, and SFOA) are still considerable with in total 16.0% yearly contribution to the OA, yet mainly during winter months (21.4%). Overall, this comprehensive protocol works effectively across all sites governed by different sources and generates robust and consistent source apportionment results. Our work presents a comprehensive overview of OA sources in Europe with a unique combination of high time resolution (30-240 minutes) and long-term data coverage (9-36 months), providing essential information to improve/validate air quality, health impact, and climate models.
Keywords: air pollution, source apportionment, organic aeroosl, black carbon
Published in RUNG: 03.06.2022; Views: 1852; Downloads: 12
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Characterization of non-refractory (NR) PM[sub]1 and source apportionment of organic aerosol in Kraków, Poland
Anna Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Francesco Canonaco, Griša Močnik, Pragati Rai, Gang Chen, Jakub Bartyzel, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Katarzyna Styszko, Jaroslaw Nęcki, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Kraków is routinely affected by very high air pollution levels, especially during the winter months. Although a lot of effort has been made to characterize ambient aerosol, there is a lack of online and long-term measurements of non-refractory aerosol. Our measurements at the AGH University of Science and Technology provide the online long-term chemical composition of ambient submicron particulate matter (PM1) between January 2018 and April 2019. Here we report the chemical characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosol and source apportionment of the organic fraction by positive matrix factorization (PMF). In contrast to other long-term source apportionment studies, we let a small PMF window roll over the dataset instead of performing PMF over the full dataset or on separate seasons. In this way, the seasonal variation in the source profiles can be captured. The uncertainties in the PMF solutions are addressed by the bootstrap resampling strategy and the random a-value approach for constrained factors. We observe clear seasonal patterns in the concentration and composition of PM1, with high concentrations during the winter months and lower concentrations during the summer months. Organics are the dominant species throughout the campaign. Five organic aerosol (OA) factors are resolved, of which three are of a primary nature (hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA)) and two are of a secondary nature (more oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA) and less oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA)). While HOA contributes on average 8.6 % ± 2.3 % throughout the campaign, the solid-fuel-combustion-related BBOA and CCOA show a clear seasonal trend with average contributions of 10.4 % ± 2.7 % and 14.1 %, ±2.1 %, respectively. Not only BBOA but also CCOA is associated with residential heating because of the pronounced yearly cycle where the highest contributions are observed during wintertime. Throughout the campaign, the OOA can be separated into MO-OOA and LO-OOA with average contributions of 38.4 % ± 8.4 % and 28.5 % ± 11.2 %, respectively.
Keywords: air pollution, PM1, organic aerosol, black carbon, source apportionment, PMF
Published in RUNG: 08.10.2021; Views: 1848; Downloads: 0
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Determination of Aethalometer multiple-scattering enhancement parameters and impact on source apportionment during the winter 2017/18 EMEP/ACTRIS/COLOSSAL campaign in Milan
Vera Bernardoni, Luca Ferrero, Ezio Bolzacchini, Alice Corina Forello, Asta Gregorič, Dario Massabo, Griša Močnik, Paolo Prati, Martin Rigler, Luca Santagostini, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: In the frame of the EMEP/ACTRIS/COLOSSAL campaign in Milan during winter 2018, equivalent black carbon measurements using the Aethalometer 31 (AE31), the Aethalometer 33 (AE33), and a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) were carried out together with levoglucosan analyses on 12 h resolved PM2.5 samples collected in parallel. From AE31 and AE33 data, the loading-corrected aerosol attenuation coefficients (bATN) were calculated at seven wavelengths (λ, where λ values are 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm). The aerosol absorption coefficient at 637 nm (babs_MAAP) was determined by MAAP measurements. Furthermore, babs was also measured at four wavelengths (405, 532, 635, 780 nm) on the 12 h resolved PM2.5 samples by a polar photometer (PP_UniMI). After comparing PP_UniMI and MAAP results, we exploited PP_UniMI data to evaluate the filter multiple-scattering enhancement parameter at different wavelengths for AE31 and AE33. We obtained instrument- and wavelength-dependent multiple-scattering enhancement parameters by linear regression of the Aethalometer bATN against the babs measured by PP_UniMI. We found significant dependence of the multiple-scattering enhancement parameter on filter material, hence on the instrument, with a difference of up to 30 % between the AE31 and the AE33 tapes. The wavelength dependence and day–night variations were small – the difference between the smallest and largest value was up to 6 %. Data from the different instruments were used as input to the so-called “Aethalometer model” for optical source apportionment, and instrument dependence of the results was investigated. Inconsistencies among the source apportionment were found fixing the AE31 and AE33 multiple-scattering enhancement parameters to their usual values. In contrast, optimised multiple-scattering enhancement parameters led to a 5 % agreement among the approaches. Also, the component apportionment “MWAA model” (Multi-Wavelength Absorption Analyzer model) was applied to the dataset. It was less sensitive to the instrument and the number of wavelengths, whereas significant differences in the determination of the absorption Ångström exponent for brown carbon were found (up to 22 %).
Keywords: black carbon, filter photometer, Aethalometer, source apportionment
Published in RUNG: 16.04.2021; Views: 2256; Downloads: 0
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10.
Evolution of organic aerosols in the atmosphere
Jose L. Jimenez, M. R. Canagaratna, N. M. Donahue, A. S. H. Prevot, Q. Zhang, J. H. Kroll, P. F. DeCarlo, J. David Allan, H. Coe, Katja Džepina, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework describing the atmospheric evolution of OA that is constrained by high–time-resolution measurements of its composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), with concentrations comparable to those of sulfate aerosol throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Our model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in both the atmosphere and laboratory: It can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.
Keywords: secondary organic aerosol, source apportionment, aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, global field measurements, laboratory experiments
Published in RUNG: 11.04.2021; Views: 2186; Downloads: 0
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