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1.
Placement and ordering of the (en)clitics
Franc Marušič, Petra Mišmaš, Rok Žaucer, 2024, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Keywords: clitics, enclitics, Slavic, syntax, Slovenian, Slovak, Czech, Bulgarian, Macedonian, BCMS, Polish, clitic cluster, stress
Published in RUNG: 31.05.2024; Views: 212; Downloads: 1
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2.
Instruct-ERIC network : biophysical characterization of antigen-nanobody complexes
Claudia D'Ercole, 2024, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Forest environments are exposed to multiple stressful factors of both abiotic and biotic nature which may lead to their massive decline [1]. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of specific stress conditions and monitoring the fluctuations of reliable forest plant biomarkers with affordable methods would be instrumental for assessing stress levels over the time. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) represents a suitable plant biomarker. APX is a hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzyme the critical role of which has been described in several plants, both herbaceous and woody. Its activity generally increases under oxidative stress during which its peroxide detoxifying function is part of the wider ascorbate-glutathione cycle [2]. The development of reagents to detect such fluctuations would help the evaluation of plant physiological conditions. In this study, nanobodies (Nbs) targeting APX have been identified. Nbs correspond to the variable domain of heavy chain-only antibodies derived from camelids. They are small (15 kDa), stable, and can be easily produced in bacteria fused to different protein tags according to the downstream applications [3]. After their isolation by biopanning against soluble APX, they have been produced and underwent a biophysical characterization in combination with their antigen (APX-Nb complex) to identify the best binders in terms of stability and affinity. The protein complex characterization was supported by Instruct-ERIC and mainly performed at the BIOCEV institute of Prague. Data from Mass Photometry and Dynamic Light scattering evidenced the formation of the protein complexes, whereas the preliminary data of Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry, performed with the aim of identifying the residues involved in the paratope/epitope interface, were insufficient to clarify the issue and rather suggested that the interaction has low affinity. This indication was then confirmed by ELISA assay. The combination of multiple methods allowed a comprehensive sample characterization which will require further structural analyses to provide a complete picture of the APX-Nb complex. [1] G. Marie. B. C. M. B. C. Walters, “Forest decline and tree mortality in a southeastern Ohio oak-hickory forest,” Ohio Journal of Science , vol. 97, 1997. [2] O. Chew, J. Whelan, and A. H. Millar, “Molecular Definition of the Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Arabidopsis Mitochondria Reveals Dual Targeting of Antioxidant Defenses in Plants,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 47, 2003, doi: 10.1074/jbc.M307525200. [3] S. Muyldermans, “A guide to: generation and design of nanobodies,” FEBS J, vol. 288, no. 7, pp. 2084–2102, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.1111/febs.15515.
Keywords: nanobody, ascorbate peroxidase, plant stress, protein complex, biophysical methodologies
Published in RUNG: 31.05.2024; Views: 279; Downloads: 0
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3.
Tense and stress in Italian verbs : lecture at the conference Going Romance, Utrecht, 1. 12. 2000
Elena Guerzoni, 2000, unpublished conference contribution

Keywords: Italian, Stress, Tense, Morpho-phonology
Published in RUNG: 04.03.2024; Views: 438; Downloads: 1
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4.
Stress and morphology in the Italian verb system
Elena Guerzoni, 2000, other monographs and other completed works

Abstract: In this paper I present an analysis of stress in Italian verbs. A preliminary comparison between nouns and adjectives on the one hand and verbs on the other reveals that these the two classes of words differ in an interesting way when it comes to stress assignment: while on a noun or adjective stress can be predicted to a large extent on the basis of a stress rule that fully coincides with the main stress rule of Classical Latin, inflection affects stress position on verbs in an apparently unpredictable fashion. Although, at first sight, this difference seems to preclude a unified account of stress in the language, this paper shows that once the additional morphological complexity of verbs is factored in, it is in fact the same algorithm that assigns stress in both word classes.
Keywords: Italian verb, tense, stress
Published in RUNG: 27.02.2024; Views: 568; Downloads: 0
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6.
Unraveling the Role of Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) Transporters in Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance
Christina Paparokidou, 2014, final research report

Abstract: The yields of worldwide crop production are negatively affected by adverse environmental conditions, such as drought, salinity, heavy metal contamination and nutrient depletion in cultivated soils (Yan et al., 2013; Golldack et al., 2011; Yadav, 2010; Kobayashi and Nishizawa, 2012). This reduced crop production constitutes a major problem for food sustainability world-wide (Spiertz, 2013). Indeed, one of the major challenges for plant biotechnology will be to satisfy the increased demand for food on one hand, and to compensate for the loss of crop production on the other. Thus, the discovery of new plant genes that are able to cope with these conditions is critical and expected not only to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying crop abiotic stress, but also to pioneer genetic engineering strategies for improved crop productivity. The goal of this project was to identify novel genes belonging to the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) of plant membrane transporters with potential major roles in conferring abiotic stress tolerance, namely to heavy metal, osmotic and iron deficiency stress. We selected three Arabidopsis thaliana MFS transporter genes, provisionally called MFS10, MFS11 and MFS12, which based on publicly available microarray data display specific expression patterns suggesting roles in plant tolerance to different abiotic stresses. RT-PCR analyses showed that in fact the MFS10 gene is highly induced by cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), salt and mannitol, while the MFS11 gene is upregulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and glucose, and the MFS12 gene by iron (Fe) deficiency, ABA and glucose. Furthermore, subcellular localization of fluorescent reporter fusions indicated that the MFS10 and MFS11 gene products are both plasma membrane localized transporters, while the encoded product of the MFS12 gene appears to be an endoplasmic reticulum localized transporter. Finally, reverse genetics using a null mutant allele for the MFS10 gene demonstrated that it functions as a regulator of plant responses to hyperosmotic (drought and salt) stress.
Keywords: Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS), abiotic stress tolerance, heavy metals, osmotic stress, ABA stress, iron deficiency, T-DNA insertion lines, RT-PCR, confocal microscopy.
Published in RUNG: 03.05.2022; Views: 1521; Downloads: 0
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7.
Abscisic acid-regulated water channels and their role in plant acclimation and tolerance to water stress
Christina Paparokidou, 2014, master's thesis

Abstract: The yield of worldwide crop production has already been negatively affected by high salinity and water deficiency prevailing in many of the cultivated lands (Yan et al., 2013; Serraj et al., 2011; Golldack et al., 2011). Consequently, reduced crop production is a major problem in terms of food sustainability world-wide (Spiertz, 2013). Plants as sessile organisms have to dynamically and constantly cope with various types of stress in their environment. Although stress perception by plants remains elusive (Gan et al., 2010; Shachar-Hill et al., 2013; Wu et al., 2012), the stress-responsive mechanisms that follow are starting to be better understood (Wasilewska et al., 2008; Kohli et al., 2013; Osakabe et al., 2013). Abscisic acid (ABA) is a central plant hormone produced in response to abiotic stress and has been shown to play important roles in plant acclimation and tolerance towards stress (Nakashima and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 2013; Osakabe et al., 2014). ABA accumulation triggers the expression of a plethora of genes within the plant cell (Liu et al., 2013). The ABA-regulated genes are various in nature, including enzymes involved in osmolyte and cell wall biosynthesis, detoxifying enzymes, enzymes for fatty acid metabolism, proteinase inhibitors, macromolecule protective proteins, lipid transfer proteins, ion transporters and water channels, transcription factors (TFs), protein kinases, protein phosphatases and proteinases (Roychoudhury et al., 2013; Rock, 2000). In this literature review the role of water channel-encoding genes, namely aquaporins (AQPs), in plant water stress will be discussed. The aim of this study is to understand how ABA-regulated AQPs are able to contribute to the plant’s tolerance and acclimation during water stress. The knowledge gained from this study is important for the engineering of salt and drought resistant crops within the modern agricultural context, thus contributing to world’s crop sustainable production (Jacobs et al., 2011; Park et al., 2005; Kujur et al., 2013).
Keywords: Abscisic acid (ABA), ABA-regulated genes, aquaporins (AQPs), ABA-regulated AQPs, ABA-dependent water stress, root hydraulic conductance (Lpr), leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf), stomatal conductance (gs), AQP bioengineering
Published in RUNG: 03.05.2022; Views: 1459; Downloads: 0
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8.
Real-time monitoring of Arundo donax response to saline stress through the application of in vivo sensing technology
Janni Michela, Claudia Cocozza, Federico Brilli, Sara Pignattelli, Filippo Vurro, Nicola Coppede, Manuele Bettelli, Davide Calestani, Francesco Loreto, Andrea Zappettini, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: One of the main impacts of climate change on agriculture production is the dramatic increase of saline (Na+) content in substrate, that will impair crop performance and productivity. Here we demonstrate how the application of smart technologies such as an in vivo sensor, termed bioristor, allows to continuously monitor in real-time the dynamic changes of ion concentration in the sap of Arundo donax L. (common name giant reed or giant cane), when exposed to a progressive salinity stress. Data collected in vivo by bioristor sensors inserted at two different heights into A. donax stems enabled us to detect the early phases of stress response upon increasing salinity. Indeed, the continuous time-series of data recorded by the bioristor returned a specific signal which correlated with Na+ content in leaves of Na-stressed plants, opening a new perspective for its application as a tool for in vivo plant phenotyping and selection of genotypes more suitable for the exploitation of saline soils.
Keywords: Arundo donax, saline stress, vivo sensing technology
Published in RUNG: 17.12.2021; Views: 1813; Downloads: 18
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10.
Identification of environmental stress conditions by comparative analysis of peroxidase activity in betulla pendula and pinus sp. : Group project report
Patrik Cingerli, Katarina Erker, Nina Žvab-Pernat, Darian Rampih, Miroslav Štrbac, Hena Zukić, Kenan Kapetanović, 2021, treatise, preliminary study, study

Abstract: The study investigated the possibility of developing a biomarker to evaluate the stress level in trees. The analyses have been performed on tree samples appertaining to two different tree species and collected at two locations in Slovenia. The presence and the activity of the proteins – peroxidases was measured by the qualitative method of the agarose gel electrophoresis and the quantitative method of spectrometry. It was found out that by measuring the presence of the biomarkers and pigments in the tree samples we can determine the stress levels and thus the health status of trees.
Keywords: biomarkers, environmental stress, pigments, peroxidase
Published in RUNG: 29.09.2021; Views: 2298; Downloads: 0
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