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91.
Telescope Array Combined Fit to Cosmic Ray Spectrum and Composition
D. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: We present the result of fits of an astrophysical model of UHECR sources to the energy spectrum measured using the Telescope Array (TA) surface detectors and the composition data measured by TA fluorescence detectors in stereo mode. The astrophysical model consists of identical sources, uniformly distributed with a density which evolves with age, where groups of nuclei with varying fractions are accelerated producing a power law source with a rigidity-dependent cutoff. The model includes the propagation effects of photo-pion production, photo-nuclear disintegration and general energy loss from universal expansion. Comparison of model data with detector data in both the energy and the Xmax distributions is done via a forward-folding description of detector effects. A prediction of the cosmogenic neutrino flux at Earth resulting from the cosmic rays produced in the model with these fit values is also presented. The predicted flux is considerably higher than other similar fits to Auger data have previously predicted.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, stereo detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition, combined fit, cosmogenic neutrinos, multimessenger
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 1040; Downloads: 5
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92.
Telescope Array 10-Year Monocular Spectrum Measurement
D. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Telescope Array (TA) is the largest cosmic ray detector in the northern hemisphere. We present a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum for energies above 10^17.5 eV using fluorescence telescopes in monocular mode. A novel weather classification scheme using machine learning was used to select data parts with good weather to ensure the quality of the fluorescence data. The data from the Black Rock Mesa (BR) and Long Ridge (LR) fluorescence telescope stations were analysed separately in monocular mode, with the calculated fluxes combined into a single spectrum. The 10-year monocular combined cosmic ray energy spectrum is in excellent agreement with previous measurements from the northern hemisphere. We present fits of the combined spectrum to a series of broken power law models. A thrice-broken power law is observed to be the best fit considering the Poisson deviance per degrees of freedom. The three breaks suggest an additional feature of the spectrum between the previously observed Ankle at 10^18.7 eV and the GZK suppression at 10^19.8 eV.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition, machine learning, weather classification
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 1075; Downloads: 5
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93.
Constraining Lorentz Invariance Violation using the muon content of extensive air showers measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory
C. Trimarelli, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Lorentz symmetry requires the space-time structure to be the same for all observers, but, on the other hand, various quantum gravity theories suggest that it may be violated when approaching the Planck scale. Even a small violation of Lorentz Invariance (LI) could easily affect the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) propagation on a cosmological scale. Moreover, at the extreme energies, like those available in the collision of UHECRs with atmosphere, one should also expect a change in the interactions and, therefore, in the development of extensive air showers. For the first time, this effect has been studied using the muon content of air showers measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory. After having introduced Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) as a perturbation term in the single particle dispersion relation, a library of simulated showers with different energies, primary particles and LIV strengths has been produced. Leading to a change in the energy threshold of particle decays, the modification of the energy-momentum relation allows hadronic interactions of neutral pions that contribute to the growth of the hadronic cascade. As a consequence, an increase in the number of muons and a decrease in their intrinsic fluctuations are expected. Comparing the Monte Carlo expectations with the muon fluctuation measurements from the Pierre Auger Observatory, limits on LIV parameters have been derived and presented in this contribution.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, muons, air showers, Lorentz violation
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 1022; Downloads: 6
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94.
Recent measurement of the Telescope Array energy spectrum and observation of the shoulder feature in the Northern Hemisphere
D. Ivanov, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) is a hybrid cosmic ray detector deployed in 2007 in Millard County, Utah, USA, which consists of a surface detector of 507 plastic scintillation counters spanning a 700 km^2 area on the ground that is overlooked by three fluorescence detector stations. The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment is a predecessor of TA, which consisted of two fluorescence detector stations operating from 1997 until 2006 from Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, USA, and which was the the first cosmic ray experiment with sufficient resolution and exposure to successfully observe the Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin (GZK) suppression at 10^19.75 eV. In this work, we present an updated TA energy spectrum result and a joint fit of independent spectrum measurements by the TA surface detector, TA fluorescence detector, and HiRes fluorescence detector to a broken power law function, which exhibits the ankle, GZK suppression, and the new shoulder feature initially seen by the Pierre Auger Observatory in the Southern Hemisphere. HiRes and TA observe the shoulder feature in the Northern Hemisphere at 10^19.25 eV, with a statistical significance of 5.3 standard deviations.
Keywords: Telescope Array, High Resolution Fly's Eye, HiRes, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, GZK
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 763; Downloads: 6
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95.
Monocular Energy Spectrum using the TAx4 Fluorescence Detector
M. Potts, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Following the evidence for a hotspot in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays, the Telescope Array (TA) Experiment undertook the TAx4 upgrade to expand the area of our Surface Detectors (SD) by a factor of 4 and have added new Fluorescence Detector (FD) stations to view over the new SD arrays. Currently, TAx4 consists of 12 FDs and 257 SDs, of a planned 500, at a spacing of 2.08 km spread over two sites. TAx4 North (4 FDs), completed in 2018, views over the northern wing of the new SD, and TAx4 South (8 FDs), completed in 2019, views over the southern wing. Both FD sites are in routine observation, with data being taken remotely at the TAx4 South site. In this work, we will report on the performance of the TAx4 FD, showing data/MC comparisons. We will present a preliminary monocular energy spectrum for the TAx4 fluorescence detector and the progress of the hybrid analysis.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 806; Downloads: 4
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96.
Anisotropy search in the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum in the Northern Hemisphere using latest data obtained with Telescope Array surface detector
T. Nonaka, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is located in the western desert of Utah, USA and observes ultra-high energy cosmic rays in the northern hemisphere. At the energies, the shape of the cosmic ray energy spectrum carries information of the source distribution. We present the search for differences in spectrum shape in different parts of the sky using latest data of TA surface detector (SD) data. From this study, we observe an apparent enhancement in the region of the northern sky that contain nearby objects, such as the super-galactic plane. Details of this analysis will be presented.
Keywords: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, anisotropy
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 855; Downloads: 5
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97.
Insight Into Lightning Initiation via Downward Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash Observations at Telescope Array
J. Remington, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Due to the difficulty of direct measurement of the thunderstorm environment, in particular the electric field strengths, the initial stages of lightning breakdown remain mysterious. The 1994 discovery of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) and their implications for megaVolt potentials within thunderclouds has proved to be a valuable source of information about the breakdown process. The Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD) --- a 700 km^2 scintillator array in Western Utah, U.S.A --- coupled with a lightning mapping array, fast sferic (field change) sensor and broadband interferometer, has provided unique insight into the properties of this energetic radiation and of lightning initiation in general. In particular, microsecond-scale timing comparisons have clearly established that downward TGFs occur during strong initial breakdown pulses (IBPs) of downward negative cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes. In turn, the IBPs are produced by streamer-based fast negative breakdown. Investigations into downward TGFs with the TASD have significantly evolved with recent upgrades to lightning instrumentation. A second state-of-the-art broadband interferometer allows high-resolution stereo observation of lightning development. A high-speed optical video camera, set to be deployed in Spring 2021, will allow simultaneous observation of the visual component of lightning responsible for TGF production. Finally, a suite of ground based static electric field mills will provide new information on the large-scale properties of the thunderstorms in which downward TGFs arise. In this talk, we present the most recent TGF observations from the Telescope Array.
Keywords: Telescope Array, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, photons, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, gamma-rays, lightning
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 944; Downloads: 6
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98.
Cosmic Ray Composition between 2 PeV and 2 EeV measured by the TALE Fluorescence Detector
T. AbuZayyad, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) cosmic rays detector located in the State of Utah in the United States is the largest ultra high energy cosmic rays detector in the northern hemisphere. The Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) fluorescence detector (FD) was added to TA in order to lower the detector's energy threshold, and has succeeded in measuring the cosmic rays energy spectrum down to PeV energies, by making use of the direct Cherenkov light produced by air showers. In this contribution we present the results of a measurement of the cosmic-ray composition using TALE FD data collected over a period of ∼7 years. TALE FD data is used to measure the Xmax distributions of showers seen in the energy range of 10^15.3 - 10^18.3 eV. The data distributions are fit to Monte Carlo distributions of {H, He, N, Fe} cosmic-ray primaries for energies up to 10^18 eV. Mean Xmax values are measured for the full energy range. TALE observes a light composition at the "Knee", that gets gradually heavier as energy increases toward the "Second-Knee". An increase in the Xmax elongation rate is observed at energies just above 10^17.3 eV indicating a change in the cosmic rays composition from a heavier to a lighter mix of primaries.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 1105; Downloads: 5
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99.
Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum measured by the TALE Fluorescence Detector
T. AbuZayyad, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) cosmic rays detector located in the State of Utah in the United States is the largest ultra high energy cosmic rays detector in the northern hemisphere. The Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) fluorescence detector (FD) was added to TA in order to lower the detector's energy threshold, and has succeeded in measuring the cosmic rays energy spectrum down to PeV energies, by making use of the direct Cherenkov light produced by air showers. In this contribution we present the results of a measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum using TALE FD data collected over a period of ∼7 years. The data set used for this measurement is the same one used for the mass composition measurement that is presented, as a separate contribution, at this conference. The energy spectrum shows features consistent with the "knee" and the "second knee"; a similar result to our previous energy spectrum publication. This time using a different hadronic model, and different event selection criteria as explained in the text of this proceeding.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 1032; Downloads: 6
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100.
Cosmic Ray Composition in the Second Knee Region as Measured by the TALE Hybrid Detector
R. Abbasi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Telescope Array Low-energy Extension (TALE) experiment is a hybrid air shower detector for the observation of air showers induced by cosmic rays with energy above 10^16 eV. The TALE detector consists of a Fluorescence Detector (FD) station with 10 FD telescopes located at the TA Middle Drum FD Station (itself made up of 14 FD telescopes), and a Surface Detector (SD) array made up of 80 scintillation counters, including 40 with 400 m spacing and 40 with 600 m spacing. A triggering system for the TALE-SD using an external trigger from the TALE-FD, a so-called hybrid trigger, allows for a lower energy threshold. The TALE hybrid trigger system has been working since 2018. Here we present an estimate of the performance of hybrid detection using a Monte Carlo simulation, and a first measurement of the cosmic ray composition and spectrum using the TALE-Hybrid detector.
Keywords: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2023; Views: 1064; Downloads: 5
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