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Title:Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale
Authors:ID Sommariva, Roberto, Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom (Author)
ID Blake, Robert S, Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom (Author)
ID Cuss, Robert J, Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom (Author)
ID Cordell, Rebecca L, Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom (Author)
ID Harrington, Jon F, British Geological Survey (BGS), Nottingham NG12 5GG, United Kingdom (Author)
ID White, Iain R., Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom (Author)
ID Monks, Paul S, Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom (Author)
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Language:English
Work type:Not categorized
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:UNG - University of Nova Gorica
Abstract:The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.
Keywords:Environmental impact, Hydraulic fracturing, Mass spectrometry
Year of publishing:2014
Number of pages:8891-8896
Numbering:15, 48
PID:20.500.12556/RUNG-4645-c3bf5a02-cbb5-f48d-4833-0defb65fb566 New window
COBISS.SI-ID:5421307 New window
DOI:10.1021/es502508w New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UNG:REP:HVNFRBVH
Publication date in RUNG:18.07.2019
Views:3118
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Environmental Science and Technology
Shortened title:Env. Sci. Technol.
Publisher:American Chemical Society
Year of publishing:2014
ISSN:0013936X

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